Reference ranges for blood tests

Reference ranges for blood tests are sets of values used by a health professional to interpret a set of medical test results from blood samples.

Reference ranges for blood tests are studied within the field of clinical chemistry (also known as "clinical biochemistry", "chemical pathology" or "pure blood chemistry"), the area of pathology that is generally concerned with analysis of bodily fluids.

Blood test results should always be interpreted using the reference range provided by the laboratory that performed the test.[1]


A reference range is usually defined as the set of values 95 percent of the normal population falls within (that is, 95% prediction interval).[2] It is determined by collecting data from vast numbers of laboratory tests.

Plasma or whole blood

In this article, all values (except the ones listed below) denote blood plasma concentration, which is approximately 60–100% larger than the actual blood concentration if the amount inside red blood cells (RBCs) is negligible. The precise factor depends on hematocrit as well as amount inside RBCs. Exceptions are mainly those values that denote total blood concentration, and in this article they are:

  • All values in Hematology – red blood cells (except hemoglobin in plasma)
  • All values in Hematology – white blood cells
  • Platelet count (Plt)

A few values are for inside red blood cells only:

  • Vitamin B9 (folic acid/folate) in red blood cells
  • Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC)


  • Mass concentration (g/dL or g/L) is the most common measurement unit in the United States. Is usually given with dL (decilitres) as the denominator in the United States, and usually with L (litres) in, for example, Sweden.
  • Molar concentration (mol/L) is used to a higher degree in most of the rest of the world, including the United Kingdom and other parts of Europe and Australia and New Zealand.[3]
  • International units (IU) are based on measured biological activity or effect, or for some substances, a specified equivalent mass.
  • Enzyme activity (kat) is commonly used for e.g. liver function tests like AST, ALT, LD and γ-GT in Sweden.[4]
  • Percentages and time-dependent units (mol/s) are used for calculated derived parameters, e.g. for beta cell function in homeostasis model assessment or thyroid's secretory capacity.

Arterial or venous

If not otherwise specified, a reference range for a blood test is generally the venous range, as the standard process of obtaining a sample is by venipuncture. An exception is for acid-base and blood gases, which are generally given for arterial blood.

Still, the blood values are approximately equal between the arterial and venous sides for most substances, with the exception of acid-base, blood gases and drugs (used in therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) assays).[5] Arterial levels for drugs are generally higher than venous levels because of extraction while passing through tissues.[5]

Usual or optimal

Reference ranges are usually given as what are the usual (or normal) values found in the population, more specifically the prediction interval that 95% of the population fall into. This may also be called standard range. In contrast, optimal (health) range or therapeutic target is a reference range or limit that is based on concentrations or levels that are associated with optimal health or minimal risk of related complications and diseases. For most substances presented, the optimal levels are the ones normally found in the population as well. More specifically, optimal levels are generally close to a central tendency of the values found in the population. However, usual and optimal levels may differ substantially, most notably among vitamins and blood lipids, so these tables give limits on both standard and optimal (or target) ranges.

In addition, some values, including troponin I and brain natriuretic peptide, are given as the estimated appropriate cutoffs to distinguish healthy people from people with specific conditions, which here are myocardial infarction and congestive heart failure, respectively, for the aforementioned substances.


References range may vary with age, sex, race, pregnancy,[6] diet, use of prescribed or herbal drugs and stress. Reference ranges often depend on the analytical method used, for reasons such as inaccuracy, lack of standardisation, lack of certified reference material and differing antibody reactivity.[7] Also, reference ranges may be inaccurate when the reference groups used to establish the ranges are small.

Sorted by concentration

By units

Units don't necessarily imply anything about molarity or mass.

A few substances are below this main interval, e.g. thyroid stimulating hormone, being measured in mU/L, or above, like rheumatoid factor and CA19-9, being measured in U/mL.

By enzyme activity

White blood cells

Sorted by category

Ions and trace metals

Included here are also related binding proteins, like ferritin and transferrin for iron, and ceruloplasmin for copper.

Test Lower limit Upper limit Unit* Comments
Sodium (Na)135,[9] 137[4][10]145,[4][10] 147[9]mmol/L or mEq/L[9]See hyponatremia or hypernatremia
310,[11] 320[11]330,[11] 340[11]mg/dL
Potassium (K)3.5,[4][9] 3.6[10]5.0,[4][9][10] 5.1mmol/L or mEq/L[9]See hypokalemia or hyperkalemia
Chloride (Cl)95,[9] 98,[13] 100[4]105,[9] 106,[13] 110[4]mmol/L or mEq/L[9]See hypochloremia or hyperchloremia
Ionized calcium (Ca)1.03,[15] 1.10[4]1.23,[15] 1.30[4]mmol/LSee hypocalcaemia or hypercalcaemia
4.1,[16] 4.4[16]4.9,[16] 5.2[16]mg/dL
Total calcium (Ca)2.1,[9][17] 2.2[4]2.5,[4][17] 2.6,[17] 2.8[9]mmol/L
8.4,[9] 8.5[18]10.2,[9] 10.5[18]mg/dL
Total serum iron (TSI) – male65,[19] 76[10]176,[19] 198[10]µg/dLSee hypoferremia or the following: iron overload (hemochromatosis), iron poisoning, siderosis, hemosiderosis, hyperferremia
11.6,[20][21] 13.6[21]30,[20] 32,[21] 35[21]μmol/L
Total serum iron (TSI) – female26,[10] 50[19]170[10][19]µg/dL
4.6,[21] 8.9[20]30.4[20]μmol/L
Total serum iron (TSI) – newborns100[19]250[19]µg/dL
Total serum iron (TSI) – children50[19]120[19]µg/dL
Total iron-binding capacity (TIBC)240,[19] 262[10]450,[19] 474[10]μg/dL
43,[21] 47[21]81,[21] 85[21]µmol/L
Transferrin190,[22] 194,[4] 204[10]326,[4] 330,[22] 360[10]mg/dL
Transferrin saturation20[19]50[19]%
Ferritin – Males and postmenopausal females12[24]300[24][25]ng/mL or µg/L
Ferritin – premenopausal females12[24]150[24] – 200[25]ng/mL or µg/L
27[26]330[26] – 440[26]pmol/L
Ammonia10,[27] 20[28]35,[27] 65[28]μmol/LSee hypoammonemia and hyperammonemia
17,[29] 34[29]60,[29] 110[29]μg/dL
Copper (Cu)70[18]150[18]µg/dLSee hypocupremia or hypercupremia
Phosphate (HPO42−)0.81.5[33]mmol/LSee hypophosphatemia or hyperphosphatemia
Inorganic phosphorus (serum)1.0[9]1.5[9]mmol/L
Zinc (Zn)60,[34] 72[35]110,[35] 130[34]μg/dLSee zinc deficiency or zinc poisoning
9.2,[36] 11[4]17,[4] 20[36]µmol/L
Magnesium1.5,[18] 1.7[37]2.0,[18] 2.3[37]mEq/L or mg/dLSee hypomagnesemia or hypermagnesemia
0.6,[38] 0.7[4]0.82,[38] 0.95[4]mmol/L
  • Note: Although 'mEq' for mass and 'mEq/L' are sometimes used in the US and elsewhere, they are not part of SI and are now considered redundant.

Acid-base and blood gases

If arterial/venous is not specified for an acid-base or blood gas value, then it generally refers to arterial, and not venous which otherwise is standard for other blood tests.

Acid-base and blood gases are among the few blood constituents that exhibit substantial difference between arterial and venous values.[5] Still, pH, bicarbonate and base excess show a high level of inter-method reliability between arterial and venous tests, so arterial and venous values are roughly equivalent for these.[39]

Test Arterial/Venous Lower limit Upper limit Unit
pHArterial7.34,[10] 7.35[9]7.44,[10] 7.45[9]
Base excessArterial & venous[40]−3[40]+3[40]mEq/L
Oxygen partial pressure (pO2)Arterial pO210,[9] 11[42]13,[42] 14[9]kPa
75,[9][10] 83[18]100,[10] 105[9]mmHg or torr
30[40]40[40]mmHg or torr
Oxygen saturationArterial94,[40] 95,[13] 96[18]100[13][18]%
VenousApproximately 75[13]
Carbon dioxide partial pressure (pCO2)Arterial PaCO24.4,[9] 4.7[42]5.9,[9] 6.0[42]kPa
33,[9] 35[10]44,[9] 45[10]mmHg or torr
41[40]51[40]mmHg or torr
Absolute content of carbon dioxide (CO2)Arterial23[40]30[40]mmol/L
Bicarbonate (HCO3)Arterial & venous18[18]23[18]mmol/L
Standard bicarbonate (SBCe)Arterial & venous21, 22[9]27, 28[9]mmol/L or mEq/L[9]

Liver function

Test Patient type Lower limit Upper limit Unit Comments
Total protein (TotPro)60,[9] 63[10]78,[9] 82,[10] 84[18]g/LSee serum total protein Interpretation
Albumin35[9][45]48,[10] 55[9]g/LSee hypoalbuminemia
3.5[10]4.8,[10] 5.5[9]U/L
Total bilirubin1.7,[47] 2,[9] 3.4,[47] 5[4]17,[9][47] 22,[47] 25[4]μmol/L
0.1,[9] 0.2,[10] 0.29[48]1.0,[9][18] 1.3,[10] 1.4[48]mg/dL
Direct/conjugated bilirubin0.0[9] or N/A[4]5,[9] 7[4][47]μmol/L
0[9][10]0.3,[9][10] 0.4[18]mg/dL
Alanine transaminase (ALT/ALAT[4])5,[49] 7,[10] 8[9]20,[9] 21,[13] 56[10]U/LAlso called serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT)
Aspartate transaminase (AST/ASAT[4])Female6[50]34[50]IU/LAlso called
serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT)
Alkaline phosphatase (ALP)0.6[4]1.8[4]µkat/L
Gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT)5,[49] 8[10]40,[49] 78[10]U/L

Cardiac tests

Test Patient type Lower limit Upper limit Unit Comments
Creatine kinase (CK)Male24,[52] 38,[10] 60[49]174,[18] 320[49]U/L or ng/mL
Female24,[52] 38,[10] 96[18]140,[18] 200[49]U/L or ng/mL
CK-MB03,[10] 3.8,[4] 5[49]ng/mL or μg/L[4]
MyoglobinFemale1[54]66[54]ng/mL or µg/L
Cardiac troponin T0.01[55]ng/mL99th percentile cutoff
Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP)
InterpretationRange / Cutoff
Congestive heart failure unlikely< 100 pg/mL[56][57]
"Gray zone"100-500 pg/mL[56][57]
Congestive heart failure likely>500 pg/mL[56][57]
Congestive heart failure likely< 75 years> 125 pg/mL[58]
>75 years>450pg/mL[58]


Test Patient type Lower limit Upper limit Unit Therapeutic target
Triglycerides10–39 years54[18]110[18]mg/dL< 100 mg/dL[59]
or 1.1[59] mmol/L
40–59 years70[18]150[18]mg/dL
> 60 years80[18]150[18]mg/dL
Total cholesterol3.0,[61] 3.6[9][61]5.0,[4][62] 6.5[9]mmol/L< 3.9 mmol/L[59]
120,[10] 140[9]200,[10] 250[9]mg/dL< 150 mg/dL[59]
HDL cholesterolFemale1.0,[63] 1.2,[4] 1.3[61]2.2[63]mmol/L> 1.0[63] or 1.6[61]  mmol/L
40[64] or 60[65] mg/dL
40,[64] 50[66]86[64]mg/dL
HDL cholesterolMale0.9[4][63]2.0[63]mmol/L
LDL cholesterol
(Not valid when
triglycerides >5.0 mmol/L)
2.0,[63] 2.4[62]3.0,[4][62] 3.4[63]mmol/L< 2.5 mmol/L[63]
80,[64] 94[64]120,[64] 130[64]mg/dL< 100 mg/dL[64]
LDL/HDL quotientn/a5[4](unitless)

Tumour markers

Test Patient type Cutoff Unit Comments
Alpha fetoprotein (AFP)44[10]ng/mL or µg/LHepatocellular carcinoma or testicular cancer
Beta human chorionic gonadotrophin (bHCG)In males and non-pregnant females5[10]IU/l or mU/mLchoriocarcinoma
CA19-940[10]U/mLPancreatic cancer
CA-12530,[67] 35[68]kU/L or U/mL
Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)Non-smokers, 50 years3.4,[4] 3.6[69]μg/L
Non-smokers, 70 years4.1[69]
Prostate specific antigen (PSA)40-49 years1.2 - 2.9[71]μg/L[4][10] or ng/mL[18]More detailed cutoffs in PSA - Serum levels
70-79 years, non-African-American4.0 - 9.0[71]
70-79 years, African-American7.7 - 13[71]
PAP3[18]units/dL (Bodansky units)
Calcitonin5,[72] 15[72]ng/L or pg/mLCutoff against medullary thyroid cancer[72]
More detailed cutoffs in Calcitonin article


Thyroid hormones

Test Patient type Lower limit Upper limit Unit
Thyroid stimulating hormone
(TSH or thyrotropin)
Adults –
standard range
0.3,[4] 0.4,[10] 0.5,[18] 0.6[73]4.0,[4] 4.5,[10] 6.0[18]mIU/L or μIU/mL
Adults –
optimal range
0.3,[74] 0.5[75]2.0,[75] 3.0[74]
Free thyroxine (FT4)
Normal adult0.7,[77] 0.8[10]1.4,[77] 1.5,[10] 1.8[78]ng/dL
9,[4][79] 10,[80] 12[81]18,[4][79] 23[81]pmol/L
31 d – 18 y
Total thyroxine4,[80] 5.5[10]11,[80] 12.3[10]μg/dL
60[80][81]140,[80] 160[81]nmol/L
Free triiodothyronine (FT3)Normal adult0.2[80]0.5[80]ng/dL
Children 2-16 y0.1[83]0.6[83]ng/dL
Total triiodothyronine60,[10] 75[80]175,[80] 181[10]ng/dL
0.9,[4] 1.1[80]2.5,[4] 2.7[80]nmol/L
Thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG)12[10]30[10]mg/L
Thyroglobulin (Tg)1.5[80]30[80]pmol/L

Sex hormones

The diagrams below take inter-cycle and inter-woman variability into account in displaying reference ranges for estradiol, progesterone, FSH and LH.

Levels of estradiol (the main estrogen), progesterone, luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone during the menstrual cycle.[84]
Test Patient type Lower limit Upper limit Unit
Dihydrotestosteroneadult male30[85] 85[85]ng/dL
TestosteroneMale, overall8,[86] 10[87]27,[86] 35[87]nmol/L
230,[88] 300[89]780[88] – 1000[89]ng/dL
Male < 50 years10[4]45[4]nmol/L
Male > 50 years6.2[4]26[4]nmol/L
Female0.7[87]2.8[87] – 3.0[4]nmol/L
20[89]80[89] – 85[88]ng/dL
Female (Follicular phase)0.2[18]1.0[18]mg/L
Adult male1[91]8[91]
Adult female (follicular
and luteal phase)
Adult female (Ovulation)6[91]
95% PI (standard)
95% PI)
90% PI (used in diagram)
(90% PI)
Post-menopausal female30[91]118[91]
Luteinizing hormone (LH)
Female, peak20[92]
90% PI (used in diagram)
(90% PI)
Female, post-menopausal15[93]60[93]
Male aged 18+2[94]9[94]
(an estrogen)
Adult male50[95]200[95]pmol/L
Adult female (day 5 of follicular phase,
and luteal phase)
70[95]500,[95] 600[95]pmol/L
19[96]140,[96] 160[96]pg/mL
Adult female – free (not protein bound)0.5[97]9[97]pg/mL
Post-menopausal femaleN/A[95]< 130[95]pmol/L
N/A[96]< 35[96]pg/mL
Female in mid-luteal phase (day 21-23)17,[92] 35[98]92[98]nmol/L
6,[92] 11[99]29[99]ng/mL
AndrostenedioneAdult male and female60[93]270[93]ng/dL
Post-menopausal female< 180[93]
Prepubertal< 60[93]
Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate Adult male and female30[100]400[100]µg/dL
Adult female40[101]120[101]nmol/L
Adult male20[101]60[101]
Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH)
13–45 years0.7[102]20[102]ng/mL

Other hormones

Test Patient type Lower limit Upper limit Unit
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)4.4[104]18,[105] 22[104]pmol/L
20[10]80,[106] 100[10]pg/mL
Cortisol09:00 am140[107]700[107]nmol/L
Growth hormone (fasting)05[9]ng/mL
Growth hormone (arginine stimulation)7[9]n/ang/mL
Female, 20 yrs110[109]420[109]ng/mL
Female, 75 yrs55[109]220[109]
Male, 20 yrs160[109]390[109]
Male, 75 yrs48[109]200[109]
Female71,[110] 105[110]348,[110] 548[110]mIU/L
3.4,[110] 3.9[110]16.4,[110] 20.3[110]µg/L
Male58,[110] 89[110]277,[110] 365[110]mIU/L
2.7,[110] 3.3[110]13.0,[110] 13.5[110]µg/L
Parathyroid hormone (PTH)10,[111] 17[112]65,[111] 70[112]pg/mL
1.1,[4] 1.8[113]6.9,[4] 7.5[113]pmol/L
25-hydroxycholecalciferol (a vitamin D)
Standard reference range
8,[18][114] 9[114]40,[114] 80[18]ng/mL
20,[115] 23[116]95,[116] 150[115]nmol/L
Therapeutic target range
30,[117] 40[118]65,[118] 100[117]ng/mL
85,[59] 100[118]120,[59] 160[118]nmol/L
Plasma renin activity0.29,[119] 1.9[120]3.7[119][120]ng/(mL·h)
3.3,[121] 21[122]41[121][122]mcU/mL
Adult19,[121] 34.0[121]ng/dL
530,[123] 940[123]pmol/L
Aldosterone-to-renin ratio
Adult13.1,[124] 35.0[124]ng/dl per ng/(mL·h)
360,[124] 970[124]pmol/liter per µg/(L·h)


Also including the vitamin B12)-related amino acid homocysteine.

Test Patient type Standard range Optimal range Unit
Lower limit Upper limit Lower limit Upper limit
Vitamin A30[18]65[18]µg/dL
Vitamin B9
(Folic acid/Folate) – Serum
Age > 1 year3.0[125]16[125]5[126]ng/mL or μg/L
Vitamin B9
(Folic acid/Folate) – Red blood cells
200[125]600[125]ng/mL or μg/L
Pregnant400[125]ng/mL or μg/L
Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin)130,[128] 160[129]700,[128] 950[129]ng/L
100,[130] 120[4]520,[130] 700[4]pmol/L
3.3,[131] 5.9[131]7.2,[131] 15.3[131]6.3[59]μmol/L
45,[132] 80[132]100,[132] 210[132]85[59]μg/dL
Vitamin C (Ascorbic acid)0.4[18]1.5[18]0.9[59]mg/dL
25-hydroxycholecalciferol (a vitamin D)8,[18][114] 9[114]40,[114] 80[18]30,[117] 40[118]65,[118] 100[117]ng/mL
20,[115] 23[116]95,[116] 150[115]85,[59] 100[118]120,[59] 160[118]nmol/L
Vitamin E28[59]μmol/L


Test Limit type Limit Unit
LeadOptimal health range< 20[13] or 40[18]µg/dL
Blood ethanol contentLimit for drunk driving0,[134] 0.2,[134] 0.8[134]‰ or g/L


Red blood cells

These values (except Hemoglobin in plasma) are for total blood and not only blood plasma.

Test Patient Lower limit Upper limit Unit Comments
Hemoglobin (Hb)male2.0,[136] 2.1[9][137]2.5,[136] 2.7[9][137]mmol/LHigher in neonates, lower in children.
130,[4] 132,[10] 135[9]162,[10] 170,[4] 175[9]g/L
female1.8,[136] 1.9[9][137]2.3,[136] 2.5[9][136][137]mmol/LSex difference negligible until adulthood.
120[4][9][10]150,[4] 152,[10] 160[9][18]g/L
Hemoglobin subunits (sometimes displayed simply as "Hemoglobin")male8.0,[138] 8.4[138]10.0,[138] 10.8[138]mmol/L4 per hemoglobin molecule
female7.2,[138] 7.6[138]9.2,[138] 10.0[138]
Hemoglobin in plasma0.16[9]0.62[9]μmol/LNormally diminutive compared with inside red blood cells
Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c)< 50 years3.6[4]5.0[4]% of Hb
> 50 years3.9[4]5.3[4]
Haptoglobin< 50 years0.35[4]1.9[4]g/L
> 50 years0.47[4]2.1[4]
Hematocrit (Hct)Male0.39,[4] 0.4,[10] 0.41,[9] 0.45[18]0.50,[4] 0.52,[10] 0.53,[9] 0.62[18]
Female0.35,[4] 0.36,[9] 0.37[10][18]0.46,[4][9][10] 0.48[18]
Mean cell volume (MCV)Male76,[18] 82[10]100,[18] 102[10]fLCells are larger in neonates, though smaller in other children.
Red blood cell distribution width (RDW)11.5[10]14.5[10]%
Mean cell hemoglobin (MCH)0.39[9]0.54[9]fmol/cell
25,[9] 27[4][18]32,[18] 33,[4] 35[9]pg/cell
Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC)31,[10] 32[4][18]35,[10] 36[4][18]g/dL or %[note 1]
4.8,[139] 5.0[139]5.4,[139] 5.6[139]mmol/L
Erythrocytes/Red blood cells (RBC)male4.2,[18] 4.3[4][9][10]5.7,[4] 5.9,[9] 6.2,[10] 6.9[18]x1012/L
Female3.5,[9] 3.8,[10] 3.9[4]5.1,[4] 5.5[9][10]
Adult0.5[9][10]1.5[9][10]% of RBC
Newborn1.1[10]4.5[10]% of RBC
Infant0.5[10]3.1[10]% of RBC

White blood cells

These values are for total blood and not only blood plasma.

Test Patient type Lower limit Upper limit Unit
White Blood Cell Count (WBC)Adult3.5,[4] 3.9,[140] 4.1,[10] 4.5[9]9.0,[4] 10.0,[140] 10.9,[10] 11[9]
  • x109/L
  • x103/mm3 or
  • x103/μL
1 year old6[141]18[141]
Neutrophil granulocytes
(A.K.A. grans, polys, PMNs, or segs)
Adult1.3,[4] 1.8,[140] 2[141]5.4,[4] 7,[140] 8[141]x109/L
45-54[9]62,[9] 74% of WBC
Neutrophilic band formsAdult0.7[141]x109/L
3[9]5[9]% of WBC
LymphocytesAdult0.7,[4] 1.0[140][141]3.5,[140] 3.9,[4] 4.8[141]x109/L
16-25[9]33,[9] 45% of WBC
MonocytesAdult0.1,[4] 0.2[142][143]0.8[4][141][143]x109/L
3,[9] 4.07,[9] 10% of WBC
Mononuclear leukocytes
(Lymphocytes + monocytes)
2035% of WBC
CD4+ T cellsAdult0.4,[10] 0.5[13]1.5,[13] 1.8[10]x109/L
Eosinophil granulocytesAdult0.0,[4] 0.04[143]0.44,[143] 0.45,[141] 0.5[4]x109/L
1[9]3,[9] 7% of WBC
Basophil granulocytesAdult40[140]100,[4][143] 200,[141] 900[140]x106/L
0.00.75,[9] 2% of WBC


Test Lower limit Upper limit Unit Comments
Thrombocyte/Platelet count (Plt)140,[10] 150[4][9]350,[4][18] 400,[9] 450[10]x109/L or
Mean platelet volume (MPV)7.2,[144] 7.4,[145] 7.5[146]10.4,[145] 11.5,[146] 11.7[144]fL
Prothrombin time (PT)10,[13] 11,[9][147] 12[10]13,[13] 13.5,[147] 14,[10] 15[9]sPT reference varies between laboratory kits – INR is standardised
INR0.9[4]1.2[4]The INR is a corrected ratio of a patient's PT to normal
Activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT)18,[10] 30[4][13]28,[10] 42,[4] 45[13]s
Thrombin clotting time (TCT)1118s
Fibrinogen1.7,[10] 2.0[4]3.6,[4] 4.2[10]g/L
0.15,[148] 0.17[149]0.2,[148] 0.39[149]mg/mL
Bleeding time29minutes


Acute phase proteins

Acute phase proteins are markers of inflammation.

Test Patient Lower limit Upper limit Unit Comments
Erythrocyte sedimentation rate
Male0Age÷2[151]mm/hESR increases with age and tends to be higher in females.[152]
C-reactive protein (CRP)5,[4][153] 6[154]mg/L
200,[155] 240[155]nmol/L
Alpha 1-antitrypsin (AAT)20,[156] 22[157]38,[157] 53[156]μmol/L
89,[158] 97[4]170,[4] 230[158]mg/dL
Procalcitonin0.15[159]ng/mL or μg/L

Isotypes of antibodies

Test Patient Lower limit Upper limit Unit
IgAAdult70,[4] 110[160]360,[4] 560[160]mg/dL


Autoantibodies are usually absent or very low, so instead of being given in standard reference ranges, the values usually denote where they are said to be present, or whether the test is a positive test. There may also be an equivocal interval, where it is uncertain whether there is a significantly increased level. All included values[161] are given for the ELISA test.

Test Negative Equivocal Positive Unit
anti-SS-A (Ro)< 15[162]15-25[162]> 25[162]Units
anti-SS-B (La)< 3[162]3–4[162]> 4[162]
Anti ds-DNA< 40[162]40–60[162]> 60[162]
Anti ss-DNA< 8[162]8–10[162]> 10[162]
Anti-histone antibodies< 25[162]n/a[162]> 25[162]
anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic
< 20[162]21–30[162]> 30[162]
anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic
antibodies (p-ANCA)
< 5[162]n/a> 5[162]
Anti-mitochondrial antibodies (AMA)< 10[162]n/a[162]> 10[162]
Rheumatoid factor (RF)< 2020–30> 30[10]
Antistreptolysin O titre
(ASOT) in
> 100
ASOT at school age> 250[10]
ASOT in adults> 125[10]
Test Negative Low/weak positive Moderate positive High/strong positive Unit
Anti-phospholipid IgG< 20[162]20–30[162]31–50[162]> 51[162]GPLU/ml[162]
Anti-phospholipid IgM< 1.5[162]1.5–2.5[162]2–9.9[162]> 10[162]MPL /ml[162]
Anti-phospholipid IgA< 10[162]10–20[162]21–30[162]> 31[162]arb U/ml[162]
Anti-citrullinated protein antibodies< 20[162]20–39[162]40–59[162]> 60[162]EU[162]

Other immunology

Test Lower limit Upper limit Unit
Serum free light chains (FLC): kappa/lambda ratio0.26[163]1.65[163](unitless)

Other enzymes and proteins

Test Lower limit Upper limit Unit Comments
Serum total protein60,[9] 63[10]78,[9] 82,[10] 84[18]g/L
Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)50[18]150[18]U/L
1.8[4]3.4[4]µkat/L< 70 years old[4]
Amylase25,[9] 30,[10] 53[18]110,[10] 120,[164] 123,[18] 125,[9] 190[49]U/L
n/a500[165]ng/mLHigher in pregnant women[166]
Lipase7,[10] 10,[18] 23[49]60,[10] 150,[18] 208[49]U/L
Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)23[49]57[49]U/L
Acid phosphatase3.0[49]ng/mL
Eosinophil cationic protein (ECP)2.3[4]16[4]µg/L

Other electrolytes and metabolites

Electrolytes and metabolites: For iron and copper, some related proteins are also included.

Test Patient type Lower limit Upper limit Unit Comments
Osmolality275,[9] 280,[18] 281[4]295,[9] 296,[18] 297[4]mOsm/kgPlasma weight excludes solutes
OsmolaritySlightly less than osmolalitymOsm/LPlasma volume includes solutes
Urea3.0[167]7.0[167]mmol/LBUN – blood urea nitrogen
7[9]18,[9] 21[10]mg/dL
* Uric acid[10]0.18[9]0.48[9]mmol/L
CreatinineMale60,[4] 68[168]90,[4] 118[168]μmol/LMay be complemented with creatinine clearance
0.7,[169] 0.8[169]1.0,[169] 1.3[169]mg/dL
Female50,[4] 68[168]90,[4] 98[168]μmol/L
0.6,[169] 0.8[169]1.0,[169] 1.1[169]mg/dL
BUN/Creatinine Ratio5[18]35[18]
Plasma glucose (fasting)3.8,[9] 4.0[4]6.0,[4] 6.1[170]mmol/LSee also glycated hemoglobin (in hematology)
65,[10] 70,[9] 72[171]100,[170] 110[18]mg/dL
Full blood glucose (fasting)3.3[4]5.6[4]mmol/L
Random glucose3.9[172]7.8[172]mmol/L
Lactate (Venous)4.5[18]19.8[18]mg/dL
Lactate (Arterial)4.5[18]14.4[18]mg/dL


Test Lower limit Upper limit Unit Comments
Digoxin0.5[177]2.0[177]ng/mLNarrow therapeutic window
Lithium0.4,[178] 0.5,[179][180] 0.8[181]1.3[179][180]mmol/LNarrow therapeutic window
Paracetamol30[182]mg/LRisk of paracetamol toxicity at higher levels

See also


  1. The MCHC in g/dL and the mass fraction of hemoglobin in red blood cells in % are numerically identical in practice, assuming a RBC density of 1g/mL and negligible hemoglobin in plasma.


  1. "Reference Ranges and What They Mean". Lab Tests Online (USA). Retrieved 22 June 2013.
  2. Page 19 in: Stephen K. Bangert MA MB BChir MSc MBA FRCPath; William J. Marshall MA MSc MBBS FRCP FRCPath FRCPEdin FIBiol; Marshall, William Leonard (2008). Clinical biochemistry: metabolic and clinical aspects. Philadelphia: Churchill Livingstone/Elsevier. ISBN 978-0-443-10186-1.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  3. Page 34: Units of measurement in Medical toxicology By Richard C. Dart Edition: 3, illustrated Published by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2004 ISBN 0-7817-2845-2, ISBN 978-0-7817-2845-4 1914 pages
  4. Reference range list from Uppsala University Hospital ("Laborationslista"). Artnr 40284 Sj74a. Issued on April 22, 2008
  5. Arterial versus venous reference ranges - Brief Article Medical Laboratory Observer, April, 2000 by D. Robert Dufour
  6. Abbassi-Ghanavati, M.; Greer, L. G.; Cunningham, F. G. (2009). "Pregnancy and Laboratory Studies". Obstetrics & Gynecology. 114 (6): 1326–31. doi:10.1097/AOG.0b013e3181c2bde8. PMID 19935037.
  7. Armbruster, David; Miller (August 2007). "The Joint Committee for Traceability in Laboratory Medicine (JCTLM): A Global Approach to Promote the Standardisation of Clinical Laboratory Test Results". The Clinical Biochemist Reviews. 28 (3): 105–14. PMC 1994110. PMID 17909615.
  8. PROOPIOMELANOCORTIN; NCBI --> POMC Retrieved on September 28, 2009
  9. Last page of Deepak A. Rao; Le, Tao; Bhushan, Vikas (2007). First Aid for the USMLE Step 1 2008 (First Aid for the Usmle Step 1). McGraw-Hill Medical. ISBN 978-0-07-149868-5.
  10. Normal Reference Range Table Archived 2011-12-25 at the Wayback Machine from The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas. Used in Interactive Case Study Companion to Pathologic basis of disease.
  11. Derived from molar values using molar mass of 22.99 g•mol−1
  12. Derived from molar values using molar mass of 39.10 g•mol−1
  13. MERCK MANUALS > Common Medical Tests > Blood Tests Last full review/revision February 2003
  14. Derived from molar values using molar mass of 35.45 g•mol−1
  15. Larsson L, Ohman S (November 1978). "Serum ionized calcium and corrected total calcium in borderline hyperparathyroidism". Clin. Chem. 24 (11): 1962–65. PMID 709830.
  16. Derived from molar values using molar mass of 40.08  g•mol−1
  17. Derived from mass values using molar mass of 40.08  g•mol−1
  18. Blood Test Results – Normal Ranges Archived 2012-11-02 at the Wayback Machine Bloodbook.Com
  19. Slon S (2006-09-22). "Serum Iron". University of Illinois Medical Center. Archived from the original on 2006-10-28. Retrieved 2006-07-06.
  20. Diagnostic Chemicals Limited > Serum Iron-SL Assay Archived 2009-01-06 at the Wayback Machine July 15, 2005
  21. Derived from mass values using molar mass of 55.85 g•mol−1
  22. Table 1. Page 133" Clinical Chemistry 45, No. 1, 1999 (stating 1.9–3.3 g/L)
  23. Derived by dividing mass values with molar mass
  24. Ferritin by: Mark Levin, MD, Hematologist and Oncologist, Newark, NJ. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network
  25. Andrea Duchini. "Hemochromatosis Workup". Medscape. Retrieved 2016-07-14. Updated: Jan 02, 2016
  26. Derived from mass values using molar mass of 450,000 g•mol−1
  27. Mitchell ML, Filippone MD, Wozniak TF (August 2001). "Metastatic carcinomatous cirrhosis and hepatic hemosiderosis in a patient heterozygous for the H63D genotype". Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med. 125 (8): 1084–7. doi:10.1043/0003-9985(2001)125<1084:MCCAHH>2.0.CO;2 (inactive 2019-08-20). PMID 11473464.
  28. Diaz J, Tornel PL, Martinez P (July 1995). "Reference intervals for blood ammonia in healthy subjects, determined by microdiffusion". Clin. Chem. 41 (7): 1048. PMID 7600690.
  29. Derived from molar values using molar mass of 17.03 g/mol
  30. Derived from mass values using molar mass of 63.55 g•mol−1
  31. "Reference range for copper". GPnotebook.
  32. Derived from mass using molar mass of 151kDa
  33. Walter F. Boron (2005). Medical Physiology: A Cellular And Molecular Approaoch. Elsevier/Saunders. ISBN 978-1-4160-2328-9. Page 849
  34. "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2010-03-07. Retrieved 2010-01-17.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  35. Derived from molar values using molar mass of 65.38 g/mol
  36. Derived from mass values using molar mass of 65.38 g/mol
  37. Derived from molar values using molar mass of 24.31 g/mol
  38. Derived from mass values using molar mass of 24.31 g/mol
  39. Middleton P, Kelly AM, Brown J, Robertson M (August 2006). "Agreements between arterial and central venous values for pH, bicarbonate, base excess, and lactate". Emerg Med J. 23 (8): 622–24. doi:10.1136/emj.2006.035915. PMC 2564165. PMID 16858095.
  40. The Medical Education Division of the Brookside Associates--> ABG (Arterial Blood Gas) Retrieved on Dec 6, 2009
  41. Derived from molar values using molar mass of 1.01 g•mol−1
  42. Derived from mmHg values using 0.133322 kPa/mmHg
  43. Derived from molar values using molar mass of 44.010 g/mol
  44. Derived from molar values using molar mass of 61 g/mol
  45. "Reference range (albumin)". GPnotebook.
  46. Derived from mass using molecular weight of 65kD
  47. Derived from mass values using molar mass of 585g/mol
  48. Derived from molar values using molar mass of 585g/mol
  49. Fachwörterbuch Kompakt Medizin E-D/D-E. Author: Fritz-Jürgen Nöhring. Edition 2. Publisher:Elsevier, Urban&FischerVerlag, 2004. ISBN 3-437-15120-7, ISBN 978-3-437-15120-0. Length: 1288 pages
  50. GPnotebook > reference range (AST) Retrieved on Dec 7, 2009
  51. "Gamma-GT". Leistungsverzeichnis. Medizinisch-Diagnostische Institute. Archived from the original on 25 April 2012. Retrieved 20 November 2011.
  52. "Creatine kinase". GPnotebook.
  53. Page 585 in: Lee, Mary Ann (2009). Basic Skills in Interpreting Laboratory Data. Amer Soc of Health System. ISBN 978-1-58528-180-0.
  54. Muscle Information and Courses from MediaLab, Inc. > Cardiac Biomarkers Retrieved on April 22, 2010
  55. Ashvarya Mangla. "Troponins". medscape. Retrieved 2017-07-24. Updated: Jan 14, 2015
  56. Brenden CK, Hollander JE, Guss D, et al. (May 2006). "Gray zone BNP levels in heart failure patients in the emergency department: results from the Rapid Emergency Department Heart Failure Outpatient Trial (REDHOT) multicenter study". American Heart Journal. 151 (5): 1006–11. doi:10.1016/j.ahj.2005.10.017. PMID 16644322.
  57. Strunk A, Bhalla V, Clopton P, et al. (January 2006). "Impact of the history of congestive heart failure on the utility of B-type natriuretic peptide in the emergency diagnosis of heart failure: results from the Breathing Not Properly Multinational Study". The American Journal of Medicine. 119 (1): 69.e1–11. doi:10.1016/j.amjmed.2005.04.029. PMID 16431187.
  58. Page 220 in: Lee, Mary Ann (2009). Basic Skills in Interpreting Laboratory Data. Amer Soc of Health System. ISBN 978-1-58528-180-0.
  59. Adëeva Nutritionals Canada > Optimal blood test values Archived 2009-05-29 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved on July 9, 2009
  60. Derived from values in mg/dl to mmol/l, by dividing by 89, according to What are mg/dl and mmol/l? How to convert? Glucose? Cholesterol? Last Update July 21, 2009. Retrieved on July 21, 2009
  61. Derived from values in mg/dl to mmol/l, using molar mass of 386.65 g/mol
  62. "Reference range (cholesterol)". GPnotebook.
  63. Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia; Cholesterol (HDL and LDL) – plasma or serum Last Updated: Monday, 6 August 2007
  64. Derived from values in mmol/l, using molar mass of 386.65 g/mol
  65. What Your Cholesterol Levels Mean. American Heart Association. Retrieved on September 12, 2009
  66. American Association for Clinical Chemistry; HDL Cholesterol
  67. GP Notebook > range (reference, ca-125) Retrieved on Jan 5, 2009
  68. ClinLab Navigator > Test Interpretations > CA-125 Retrieved on March 8, 2011
  69. Bjerner J, Høgetveit A, Wold Akselberg K, et al. (June 2008). "Reference intervals for carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), CA125, MUC1, Alfa-foeto-protein (AFP), neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and CA19.9 from the NORIP study". Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation. 68 (8): 703–13. doi:10.1080/00365510802126836. PMID 18609108.
  70. Carcinoembryonic Antigen(CEA) at MedicineNet
  71. Luboldt, Hans-Joachim; Schindler, Joachim F.; Rübben, Herbert (2007). "Age-Specific Reference Ranges for Prostate-Specific Antigen as a Marker for Prostate Cancer". EAU-EBU Update Series. 5 (1): 38–48. doi:10.1016/j.eeus.2006.10.003. ISSN 1871-2592.
  72. Basuyau JP, Mallet E, Leroy M, Brunelle P (October 2004). "Reference intervals for serum calcitonin in men, women, and children". Clinical Chemistry. 50 (10): 1828–30. doi:10.1373/clinchem.2003.026963. PMID 15388660.
  73. The TSH Reference Range Wars: What's "Normal?", Who is Wrong, Who is Right... By Mary Shomon, Updated: June 19, 2006. Health's Disease and Condition
  74. 2006 Press releases: Thyroid Imbalance? Target Your Numbers Archived 2008-03-03 at the Wayback Machine Contacts: Bryan Campbell American] Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  75. The TSH Reference Range Wars: What's "Normal?", Who is Wrong, Who is Right... By Mary Shomon, Updated: June 19, 2006
  76. Demers, Laurence M.; Carole A. Spencer (2002). "LMPG: Laboratory Support for the Diagnosis and Monitoring of Thyroid Disease". National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry (USA). Retrieved 2007-04-13. – see Section 2. Pre-analytic factors
  77. Free T4; Thyroxine, Free; T4, Free Archived 2010-12-22 at the Wayback Machine UNC Health Care System
  78. Derived from molar values using molar mass of 776.87 g/mol
  79. Derived from mass values using molar mass of 776.87 g/mol
  80. Table 4: Typical reference ranges for serum assays Archived 2011-07-01 at the Wayback Machine – Thyroid Disease Manager
  81. van der Watt G, Haarburger D, Berman P (July 2008). "Euthyroid patient with elevated serum free thyroxine". Clinical Chemistry. 54 (7): 1239–41. doi:10.1373/clinchem.2007.101428. PMID 18593963.
  82. Derived from mass values using molar mass of 650.98 g/mol
  83. Cioffi M, Gazzerro P, Vietri MT, et al. (2001). "Serum concentration of free T3, free T4 and TSH in healthy children". Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism. 14 (9): 1635–9. doi:10.1515/jpem.2001.14.9.1635. PMID 11795654. INIST:13391788.
  84. Häggström, Mikael (2014). "Reference ranges for estradiol, progesterone, luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone during the menstrual cycle". WikiJournal of Medicine. 1 (1). doi:10.15347/wjm/2014.001.
  85. Life Extension Foundation > Blood Testing Protocols
  86. Andrology Australia: Your Health > Low Testosterone > Diagnosis
  87. Derived from mass values using molar mass of 288.42g/mol
  88. Derived from molar values using molar mass of 288.42g/mol
  89. MedlinePlus > Testosterone Update Date: 3/18/2008. Updated by: Elizabeth H. Holt, MD, PhD, Yale University. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director
  90. Derived from mass values using molar mass of 330.46g/mol
  91. reference range (FSH) GPnotebook. Retrieved on September 27, 2009
  92. Values taken from day 1 after LH surge in: Stricker R, Eberhart R, Chevailler MC, Quinn FA, Bischof P, Stricker R (2006). "Establishment of detailed reference values for luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, estradiol, and progesterone during different phases of the menstrual cycle on the Abbott ARCHITECT analyzer". Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine. 44 (7): 883–87. doi:10.1515/CCLM.2006.160. PMID 16776638.
  93. New York Hospital Queens > Services and Facilities > Patient Testing > Pathology > New York Hospital Queens Diagnostic Laboratories > Test Directory > Reference Ranges Retrieved on Nov 8, 2009
  94. Mayo Medical Laboratories > Test ID: LH, Luteinizing Hormone (LH), Serum Archived 2016-09-25 at the Wayback Machine, retrieved December 2012
  95. GPNotebook – reference range (oestradiol) Retrieved on September 27, 2009
  96. Derived from molar values using molar mass of 272.38g/mol
  97. Total amount multiplied by 0.022 according to 2.2% presented in: Wu CH, Motohashi T, Abdel-Rahman HA, Flickinger GL, Mikhail G (August 1976). "Free and protein-bound plasma estradiol-17 beta during the menstrual cycle". J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 43 (2): 436–45. doi:10.1210/jcem-43-2-436. PMID 950372.
  98. Derived from mass values using molar mass of 314.46 g/mol
  99. Bhattacharya Sudhindra Mohan (July/August 2005) Mid-luteal phase plasma progesterone levels in spontaneous and clomiphene citrate induced conception cycles J Obstet Gynecol India Vol. 55, No. 4 : July/August 2005 Pg 350-352
  100. Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate (DHEA-S), Serum Archived 2018-03-14 at the Wayback Machine at Mayo Foundation For Medical Education And Research. Retrieved July 2012
  101. Unit Code 91215 Archived 2011-07-20 at the Wayback Machine at Mayo Clinic Medical Laboratories. Retrieved April 2011
  102. Antimullerian Hormone (AMH), Serum from Mayo Medical Laboratories. Retrieved April 2012.
  103. Derived from mass values using 140,000 g/mol, as given in:
  104. Derived from mass values using molar mass of 4540g/mol. This molar mass was taken from: PROOPIOMELANOCORTIN; NCBI --> POMC Retrieved on September 28, 2009
  105. "Adrenocorticotropic Hormone:Normal". WebMD. 09-03-2006. Retrieved 2008-11-09. Check date values in: |date= (help)
  106. Derived from molar values using molar mass of 4540g/mol. This molar mass was taken from: PROOPIOMELANOCORTIN; NCBI --> POMC Retrieved on September 28, 2009
  107. Biochemistry Reference Ranges at Good Hope Hospital Retrieved on Nov 8, 2009
  108. Derived from molar values using molar mass of 362 g/mol
  109. Friedrich N, Alte D, Völzke H, et al. (June 2008). "Reference ranges of serum IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 levels in a general adult population: results of the Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP)". Growth Hormone & IGF Research. 18 (3): 228–37. doi:10.1016/j.ghir.2007.09.005. PMID 17997337.
  110. Taken from the assay method giving the lowest and highest estimate, respectively, from Table 2 in: Beltran L, Fahie-Wilson MN, McKenna TJ, Kavanagh L, Smith TP (October 2008). "Serum total prolactin and monomeric prolactin reference intervals determined by precipitation with polyethylene glycol: evaluation and validation on common immunoassay platforms". Clinical Chemistry. 54 (10): 1673–81. doi:10.1373/clinchem.2008.105312. PMID 18719199.
  111. Derived from molar values using molar mass of 9.4 kDa
  112. Table 2 in: Aloia JF, Feuerman M, Yeh JK (2006). "Reference range for serum parathyroid hormone". Endocr Pract. 12 (2): 137–44. doi:10.4158/ep.12.2.137. PMC 1482827. PMID 16690460.
  113. Derived from mass values using molar mass of 9.4 kDa
  114. Derived from molar values using molar mass 400.6 g/mol
  115. Bender, David A. (2003). "Vitamin D". Nutritional biochemistry of the vitamins. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-80388-5. Retrieved December 10, 2008 through Google Book Search.
  116. Bischoff-Ferrari HA, Dietrich T, Orav EJ, et al. (September 2004). "Higher 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations are associated with better lower-extremity function in both active and inactive persons aged > or &#61;60 y". The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 80 (3): 752–58. doi:10.1093/ajcn/80.3.752. PMID 15321818.
  117. Reusch J, Ackermann H, Badenhoop K (May 2009). "Cyclic changes of vitamin D and PTH are primarily regulated by solar radiation: 5-year analysis of a German (50 degrees N) population". Horm. Metab. Res. 41 (5): 402–07. doi:10.1055/s-0028-1128131. PMID 19241329.
  118. Vasquez A, Cannell J (July 2005). "Calcium and vitamin D in preventing fractures: data are not sufficient to show inefficacy". BMJ. 331 (7508): 108–09, author reply 109. doi:10.1136/bmj.331.7508.108-b. PMC 558659. PMID 16002891.
  119. Converted from values in mcU/mL by dividing with a factor of 11.2 mcU/mL per ng/(mL*hour), as given in: Washington, Department of Laboratory Medicine. Retrieved Mars 2011
  120. Pratt RE, Flynn JA, Hobart PM, Paul M, Dzau VJ (March 1988). "Different secretory pathways of renin from mouse cells transfected with the human renin gene". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 263 (7): 3137–41. PMID 2893797.
  121. New Assays for Aldosterone, Renin and Parathyroid Hormone Archived 2011-10-27 at the Wayback Machine University of Washington, Department of Laboratory Medicine. Retrieved Mars 2011
  122. Converted from values in ng/(mL*hour) by multiplying with a factor of 11.2 mcU/mL per ng/(mL*hour), as given in: Washington, Department of Laboratory Medicine. Retrieved Mars 2011
  123. Converted from mass values using molar mass of 360.44 g/mol
  124. Tiu SC, Choi CH, Shek CC, et al. (January 2005). "The use of aldosterone-renin ratio as a diagnostic test for primary hyperaldosteronism and its test characteristics under different conditions of blood sampling". The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. 90 (1): 72–78. CiteSeerX doi:10.1210/jc.2004-1149. PMID 15483077.
  125. Central Manchester University Hospitals --> Reference ranges Retrieved on July 9, 2009
  126. University of Kentucky Chandler Medical Center > Clinical Lab Reference Range Guide Retrieved on April 28, 2009
  127. Derived from mass values using molar mass of 441 mol−1
  128. GPnotebook > B12 Retrieved on April 28, 2009
  129. Derived form molar values using molar mass of 1355g/mol
  130. Derived from mass values using molar mass of 1355g/mol
  131. The Doctor's Doctor: Homocysteine
  132. Derived from molar values using molar massof 135 g/mol
  133. Derived from mass values using molar mass of 176 grams per mol
  134. For Driving under the influence by country, see Drunk driving law by country
  135. Derived from mass values using molar mass of 46g/mol
  136. Derived from mass values using 64,500 g/mol. This molar mass was taken from: Van Beekvelt MC, Colier WN, Wevers RA, Van Engelen BG (2001). "Performance of near-infrared spectroscopy in measuring local O2 consumption and blood flow in skeletal muscle". J Appl Physiol. 90 (2): 511–19. doi:10.1152/jappl.2001.90.2.511. PMID 11160049.
  137. Normal Lab Values Archived 2014-12-16 at the Wayback Machine at Marshall University Joan C. Edwards School of Medicine. Retrieved July 2013
  138. molar concentration as given for hemoglobin above, but multiplied by 4, according to: Lodemann P, Schorer G, Frey BM (February 2010). "Wrong molar hemoglobin reference values-a longstanding error that should be corrected". Annals of Hematology. 89 (2): 209. doi:10.1007/s00277-009-0791-x. PMID 19609525.
  139. Derived from mass concentration, using molar mass of 64,458 g/mol. This molar mass was taken from: Van Beekvelt MC, Colier WN, Wevers RA, Van Engelen BG (2001). "Performance of near-infrared spectroscopy in measuring local O2 consumption and blood flow in skeletal muscle". J Appl Physiol. 90 (2): 511–519. doi:10.1152/jappl.2001.90.2.511. PMID 11160049.. Subsequently, 1 g/dL = 0.1551 mmol/L
  140. > Tests & Imaging > Labs > Complete Blood Count Retrieved on May 14, 2009
  141. Clinical Laboratory Medicine. By Kenneth D. McClatchey. Page 807.
  142. Determination of monocyte count by hematological analyzers, manual method and flow cytometry in polish population Central European Journal of Immunology 1-2/2006. (Centr Eur J Immunol 2006; 31 (1-2): 1-5) authors: Elżbieta Górska, Urszula Demkow, Roman Pińkowski, Barbara Jakubczak, Dorota Matuszewicz, Jolanta Gawęda, Wioletta Rzeszotarska, Maria Wąsik,
  143. > blood constituents (reference range) Retrieved on May 14, 2009
  144. Demirin H, Ozhan H, Ucgun T, Celer A, Bulur S, Cil H, Gunes C, Yildirim HA (2011). "Normal range of mean platelet volume in healthy subjects: Insight from a large epidemiologic study". Thromb. Res. 128 (4): 358–60. doi:10.1016/j.thromres.2011.05.007. PMID 21620440.
  145. Normal Values: RBC, Hgb, Hct, Indices, RDW, Platelets, and MPV (Conventional Units) Archived 2011-07-27 at the Wayback Machine From labcareplus. Retrieved 4 nov, 2010
  146. Lozano M, Narváez J, Faúndez A, Mazzara R, Cid J, Jou JM, Marín JL, Ordinas A (1998). "[Platelet count and mean platelet volume in the Spanish population]". Med Clin (Barc) (in Spanish). 110 (20): 774–77. PMID 9666418.
  147. MedlinePlus Encyclopedia 003652
  148. Antithrombin III at eMedicine
  149. Antithrombin CO000300 in Coagulation Test Handbook at Massachusetts General Hospital. In turn citing:
    • Elizabeth M. Van Cott, M.D., and Michael Laposata, M.D., Ph.D., "Coagulation." In: Jacobs DS et al, ed. The Laboratory Test Handbook, 5th Edition. Lexi-Comp, Cleveland, 2001; 327-358.
  150. Retrieved on November 20, 2009
  151. Miller A, Green M, Robinson D (January 1983). "Simple rule for calculating normal erythrocyte sedimentation rate". British Medical Journal. 286 (6361): 266. doi:10.1136/bmj.286.6361.266. PMC 1546487. PMID 6402065.
  152. Böttiger LE, Svedberg CA (1967). "Normal erythrocyte sedimentation rate and age". Br Med J. 2 (5544): 85–87. doi:10.1136/bmj.2.5544.85. PMC 1841240. PMID 6020854.
  153. "C-reactive protein". GPnotebook.
  154. 2730 Serum C-Reactive Protein values in Diabetics with Periodontal Disease Archived 2008-12-20 at the Wayback Machine A.R. Choudhury, and S. Rahman, Birdem, Diabetic Association of Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh. (the diabetics were not used to determine the reference ranges)
  155. Derived from mass using molar mass of 25,106 g/mol
  156. Sipahi T, Kara C, Tavil B, Inci A, Oksal A (March 2003). "Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency: an overlooked cause of late hemorrhagic disease of the newborn". Journal of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology. 25 (3): 274–75. doi:10.1097/00043426-200303000-00019. PMID 12621252.
  157. Derived from mass values using molar mass of 44324.5 g/mol
  158. Derived from molar values using molar mass of 44324.5 g/mol
  159. "Procalcitonin, Serum". Mayo Clinic. Retrieved 2015-03-01.
  160. The Society for American Clinical Laboratory Science > Chemistry Tests > Immunoglobulins Archived 2009-10-15 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved on Nov 26, 2009
  161. All values cited from Chronolab are given for ELISA
  162. > Autoantibodies associated with rheumatic diseases > Reference ranges Retrieved on April 29, 2010
  163. Rajkumar SV, Kyle RA, Therneau TM, et al. (August 2005). "Serum free light chain ratio is an independent risk factor for progression in monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance". Blood. 106 (3): 812–17. doi:10.1182/blood-2005-03-1038. PMC 1895159. PMID 15855274.
  164. "Reference range (amylase)". GPnotebook.
  165. Ageno W, Finazzi S, Steidl L, et al. (2002). "Plasma measurement of D-dimer levels for the early diagnosis of ischemic stroke subtypes". Archives of Internal Medicine. 162 (22): 2589–93. doi:10.1001/archinte.162.22.2589. PMID 12456231.
  166. Kline JA, Williams GW, Hernandez-Nino J (May 2005). "D-dimer concentrations in normal pregnancy: new diagnostic thresholds are needed". Clinical Chemistry. 51 (5): 825–29. doi:10.1373/clinchem.2004.044883. PMID 15764641.
  167. Gardner MD, Scott R (April 1980). "Age- and sex-related reference ranges for eight plasma constituents derived from randomly selected adults in a Scottish new town". Journal of Clinical Pathology. 33 (4): 380–85. doi:10.1136/jcp.33.4.380. PMC 1146084. PMID 7400337.
  168. Finney H, Newman DJ, Price CP (January 2000). "Adult reference ranges for serum cystatin C, creatinine and predicted creatinine clearance". Annals of Clinical Biochemistry. 37 (1): 49–59. doi:10.1258/0004563001901524. PMID 10672373.
  169. Derived from molar values by multiplying with the molar mass of 113.118 g/mol, and divided by 10.000 to adapt from μg/L to mg/dL
  170. MedlinePlus Encyclopedia Glucose tolerance test
  171. Derived from molar values using molar mass of 180g/mol
  172. Derived from mass values using molar mass of 180g/mol
  173. "Diabetes – Prevention". Cleveland Clinic. Retrieved 2016-06-23. Last revised 1/15/2013
  174. Derived from mass values using molar mass of 90.08 g/mol
  175. Derived from mass values using molar mass of 88.06 g/mol
  176. Ketones at eMedicine
  177. Page 700 in:
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  178. The UK Electronic Medical Compendium recommends 0.4–0.8 mmol/l plasma lithium level in adults for prophylaxis of recurrent affective bipolar manic-depressive illness Camcolit 250 mg Lithium Carbonate Archived 2016-03-04 at the Wayback Machine Revision 2 December 2010, Retrieved 5 May 2011
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  180. R. Baselt, Disposition of Toxic Drugs and Chemicals in Man, 8th edition, Biomedical Publications, Foster City, CA, 2008, pp. 851–54.
  181. One study (Solomon, D.; Ristow, W.; Keller, M.; Kane, J.; Gelenberg, A.; Rosenbaum, J.; Warshaw, M. (1996). "Serum lithium levels and psychosocial function in patients with bipolar I disorder". The American Journal of Psychiatry. 153 (10): 1301–07. doi:10.1176/ajp.153.10.1301. PMID 8831438.) concluded a "low" dose of 0.4–0.6 mmol/L serum lithium treatment for patients with bipolar 1 disorder had less side effects, but a higher rate of relapse, than a "standard" dose of 0.8–1.0 mmol/l. However, a reanalysis of the same experimental data (Perlis, R.; Sachs, G.; Lafer, B.; Otto, M.; Faraone, S.; Kane, J.; Rosenbaum, J. (2002). "Effect of abrupt change from standard to low serum levels of lithium: A reanalysis of double-blind lithium maintenance data". The American Journal of Psychiatry. 159 (7): 1155–59. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.159.7.1155. PMID 12091193.) concluded the higher rate of relapse for the "low" dose was due to abrupt changes in the lithium serum levels
  182. John Marx; Ron Walls; Robert Hockberger (2013). Rosen's Emergency Medicine – Concepts and Clinical Practice. Elsevier Health Sciences. ISBN 9781455749874.

Further reading

  • Rappoport, n.; Paik, P.; Oskotsky, B.; Tor, R.; Ziv, E.; Zaitlen, N.; Butte, A. (4 November 2017). "Creating ethnicity-specific reference intervals for lab tests from EHR data". bioRxiv 213892.
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