Wiggers diagram

A Wiggers diagram, named after its developer, Carl Wiggers, is a standard diagram that is used in teaching cardiac physiology.[1] In the Wiggers diagram, the X-axis is used to plot time, while the Y-axis contains all of the following on a single grid:

A Wiggers diagram

The Wiggers diagram clearly illustrates the coordinated variation of these values as the heart beats, assisting one in understanding the entire cardiac cycle.


PhaseEKGHeart soundsSemilunar valvesAtrioventricular valves
AAtrial systolePS4*closedopen
BVentricular systole - Isovolumetric/isovolumic contractionQRSS1 ("lub")closedclosed
C1Ventricular systole - Ejection 1-openclosed
C2Ventricular systole - Ejection 2Topenclosed
DVentricular diastole - Isovolumetric/isovolumic relaxation-S2 ("dub")closedclosed
E1Ventricular diastole - Ventricular filling 1-S3*closedopen
E2Ventricular diastole - Ventricular filling 2-closedopen

Note that during isovolumetric/isovolumic contraction and relaxation, all the heart valves are closed. At no time are all the heart valves open.

  • S3 and S4 heart sounds are associated with pathologies and are not routinely heard.

See also


  1. Mitchell, Jamie R.; Wang, Jiun-Jr (2014-06-01). "Expanding application of the Wiggers diagram to teach cardiovascular physiology". Advances in Physiology Education. 38 (2): 170–175. doi:10.1152/advan.00123.2013. ISSN 1043-4046. PMC 4056172. PMID 24913453.

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