A Wiggers diagram, named after its developer, Carl Wiggers, is a standard diagram that is used in teaching cardiac physiology. In the Wiggers diagram, the X-axis is used to plot time, while the Y-axis contains all of the following on a single grid:
- Blood pressure
- Ventricular volume
- Arterial flow (optional)
- Heart sounds (optional)
The Wiggers diagram clearly illustrates the coordinated variation of these values as the heart beats, assisting one in understanding the entire cardiac cycle.
|Phase||EKG||Heart sounds||Semilunar valves||Atrioventricular valves|
|B||Ventricular systole - Isovolumetric/isovolumic contraction||QRS||S1 ("lub")||closed||closed|
|C1||Ventricular systole - Ejection 1||-||open||closed|
|C2||Ventricular systole - Ejection 2||T||open||closed|
|D||Ventricular diastole - Isovolumetric/isovolumic relaxation||-||S2 ("dub")||closed||closed|
|E1||Ventricular diastole - Ventricular filling 1||-||S3*||closed||open|
|E2||Ventricular diastole - Ventricular filling 2||-||closed||open|
Note that during isovolumetric/isovolumic contraction and relaxation, all the heart valves are closed. At no time are all the heart valves open.
- S3 and S4 heart sounds are associated with pathologies and are not routinely heard.
- Mitchell, Jamie R.; Wang, Jiun-Jr (2014-06-01). "Expanding application of the Wiggers diagram to teach cardiovascular physiology". Advances in Physiology Education. 38 (2): 170–175. doi:10.1152/advan.00123.2013. ISSN 1043-4046. PMC 4056172. PMID 24913453.
- Ventricular systole
- Cardiac diastole
- The EKG complex. P=P wave, PR=PR interval, QRS=QRS complex, QT=QT interval, ST=ST segment, T=T wave
- Wiggers with jugular venous waveform