# End-systolic volume

**End-systolic volume** (**ESV**) is the volume of blood in a ventricle at the end of contraction, or systole, and the beginning of filling, or diastole.

ESV is the lowest volume of blood in the ventricle at any point in the cardiac cycle. The main factors that affect the end-systolic volume are afterload and the contractility of the heart.

## Uses

End systolic volume can be used clinically as a measurement of the adequacy of cardiac emptying, related to systolic function. On an electrocardiogram, or ECG, the end-systolic volume will be seen at the end of the T wave. Clinically, ESV can be measured using two-dimensional echocardiography, MRI (magnetic resonance tomography) or cardiac CT (computed tomography) or SPECT (single photon emission computed tomography).

## Sample values

Along with end-diastolic volume, ESV determines the stroke volume, or output of blood by the heart during a single phase of the cardiac cycle.[1] The stroke volume is the difference between the end-diastolic volume and the end-systolic volume. The end-systolic values in the table below are for the left ventricle:

Ventricular volumes | ||
---|---|---|

Measure | Right ventricle | Left ventricle |

End-diastolic volume | 144 mL(± 23 mL)[2] | 142 mL (± 21 mL)[3] |

End-diastolic volume / body surface area (mL/m^{2}) |
78 mL/m^{2} (± 11 mL/m^{2})[2] |
78 mL/m^{2} (± 8.8 mL/m^{2})[3] |

End-systolic volume | 50 mL (± 14 mL)[2] | 47 mL (± 10 mL)[3] |

End-systolic volume / body surface area (mL/m^{2}) |
27 mL/m^{2} (± 7 mL/m^{2})[2] |
26 mL/m^{2} (± 5.1 mL/m^{2})[3] |

Stroke volume | 94 mL (± 15 mL)[2] | 95 mL (± 14 mL)[3] |

Stroke volume / body surface area (mL/m^{2}) |
51 mL/m^{2} (± 7 mL/m^{2})[2] |
52 mL/m^{2} (± 6.2 mL/m^{2})[3] |

Ejection fraction | 66% (± 6%)[2] | 67% (± 4.6%)[3] |

Heart rate | 60–100 bpm[4] | 60–100 bpm[4] |

Cardiac output | 4.0–8.0 L/minute[5] | 4.0–8.0 l L/minute[5] |

The right ventricular end-systolic volume (RVESV) normally ranges between 50 and 100 mL.[5]

## References

- Boron WF, Boulpaep EL (2003).
*Medical physiology : a cellular and molecular approach*(1st ed.). Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders. p. 521. ISBN 0-7216-3256-4. - Maceira AM, Prasad SK, Khan M, Pennell DJ (December 2006). "Reference right ventricular systolic and diastolic function normalized to age, gender and body surface area from steady-state free precession cardiovascular magnetic resonance" (PDF).
*European Heart Journal*.**27**(23): 2879–88. doi:10.1093/eurheartj/ehl336. PMID 17088316. - Maceira A (2006). "Normalized Left Ventricular Systolic and Diastolic Function by Steady State Free Precession Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance".
*Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance*.**8**: 417–426. doi:10.1080/10976640600572889. (subscription required) - Normal ranges for heart rate are among the narrowest limits between bradycardia and tachycardia. See the Bradycardia and Tachycardia articles for more detailed limits.
- "Normal Hemodynamic Parameters – Adult" (PDF). Edwards Lifesciences LLC. 2009.