ESV is the lowest volume of blood in the ventricle at any point in the cardiac cycle. The main factors that affect the end-systolic volume are afterload and the contractility of the heart.
End systolic volume can be used clinically as a measurement of the adequacy of cardiac emptying, related to systolic function. On an electrocardiogram, or ECG, the end-systolic volume will be seen at the end of the T wave. Clinically, ESV can be measured using two-dimensional echocardiography, MRI (magnetic resonance tomography) or cardiac CT (computed tomography) or SPECT (single photon emission computed tomography).
Along with end-diastolic volume, ESV determines the stroke volume, or output of blood by the heart during a single phase of the cardiac cycle. The stroke volume is the difference between the end-diastolic volume and the end-systolic volume. The end-systolic values in the table below are for the left ventricle:
|Measure||Right ventricle||Left ventricle|
|End-diastolic volume||144 mL(± 23 mL)||142 mL (± 21 mL)|
|End-diastolic volume / body surface area (mL/m2)||78 mL/m2 (± 11 mL/m2)||78 mL/m2 (± 8.8 mL/m2)|
|End-systolic volume||50 mL (± 14 mL)||47 mL (± 10 mL)|
|End-systolic volume / body surface area (mL/m2)||27 mL/m2 (± 7 mL/m2)||26 mL/m2 (± 5.1 mL/m2)|
|Stroke volume||94 mL (± 15 mL)||95 mL (± 14 mL)|
|Stroke volume / body surface area (mL/m2)||51 mL/m2 (± 7 mL/m2)||52 mL/m2 (± 6.2 mL/m2)|
|Ejection fraction||66% (± 6%)||67% (± 4.6%)|
|Heart rate||60–100 bpm||60–100 bpm|
|Cardiac output||4.0–8.0 L/minute||4.0–8.0 l L/minute|
- Boron WF, Boulpaep EL (2003). Medical physiology : a cellular and molecular approach (1st ed.). Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders. p. 521. ISBN 0-7216-3256-4.
- Maceira AM, Prasad SK, Khan M, Pennell DJ (December 2006). "Reference right ventricular systolic and diastolic function normalized to age, gender and body surface area from steady-state free precession cardiovascular magnetic resonance" (PDF). European Heart Journal. 27 (23): 2879–88. doi:10.1093/eurheartj/ehl336. PMID 17088316.
- Maceira A (2006). "Normalized Left Ventricular Systolic and Diastolic Function by Steady State Free Precession Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance". Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance. 8: 417–426. doi:10.1080/10976640600572889. (subscription required)
- Normal ranges for heart rate are among the narrowest limits between bradycardia and tachycardia. See the Bradycardia and Tachycardia articles for more detailed limits.
- "Normal Hemodynamic Parameters – Adult" (PDF). Edwards Lifesciences LLC. 2009.