Although the different aspects of cardiovascular physiology are closely interrelated, the subject is still usually divided into several subtopics.
- Cardiac output (= heart rate * stroke volume. Can also be calculated with Fick principle.)
- Stroke volume (= end-diastolic volume − end-systolic volume)
- Ejection fraction (= stroke volume / end-diastolic volume)
- Cardiac output is mathematically ` to systole
- Inotropic, chronotropic, and dromotropic states
- Cardiac input (= heart rate * suction volume Can be calculated by inverting terms in Fick principle)
- Suction volume (= end-systolic volume + end-diastolic volume)
- Injection fraction (=suction volume / end-systolic volume)
- Cardiac input is mathematically ` to diastole
- Electrical conduction system of the heart
- Frank–Starling law of the heart
- Wiggers diagram
- Pressure volume diagram
Regulation of blood pressure
- Renin–angiotensin system
- Juxtaglomerular apparatus
- Aortic body and carotid body
- Cerebral Autoregulation
Under most circumstances, the body attempts to maintain a steady mean arterial pressure.
In turn, this can have a significant impact upon several other variables:
|Name of circulation||% of cardiac output||Autoregulation||Perfusion||Comments|
|pulmonary circulation||100% (deoxygenated)||Vasoconstriction in response to hypoxia|
|cerebral circulation||15%||high||under-perfused||Fixed volume means intolerance of high pressure. Minimal ability to use anaerobic respiration|
|coronary circulation||5%||high||under-perfused||Minimal ability to use anaerobic respiration. Blood flow through the left coronary artery is at a maximum during diastole (in contrast to the rest of systemic circulation, which has a maximum blood flow during systole.)|
|splanchnic circulation||15%||low||Flow increases during digestion.|
|hepatic circulation||15%||Part of portal venous system, so oncotic pressure is very low|
|renal circulation||25%||high||over-perfused||Maintains glomerular filtration rate|
|skeletal muscular circulation||17%||Perfusion increases dramatically during exercise.|
|cutaneous circulation||2%||over-perfused||Crucial in thermoregulation. Significant ability to use anaerobic respiration|
- Cardiovascular System Dynamics Society
- Overview Archived January 17, 2007, at the Wayback Machine at Medical College of Georgia
- "Regulation of Increased Blood Flow (Hyperemia) to Muscles During Exercise: A Hierarchy of Competing Physiological Needs".
- Nosek, Thomas M. Essentials of Human Physiology. Section 3/3ch11/s3c11_13
- Nosek, Thomas M. Essentials of Human Physiology. Section 3/3ch11/s3c11_2
- Nosek, Thomas M. Essentials of Human Physiology. Section 3/3ch11/s3c11_10
- Cardiovascular+physiology at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH)
- Cardiovascular Physiology Concepts - Comprehensive explanation of basic cardiovascular concepts, based on a textbook of the same name.
- The Gross Physiology of the Cardiovascular System - Mechanical overview of cardiovascular function. Free eBook and video resources.
- Clinical Sciences - Cardiovascular An iPhone app covering detailed cardiovascular physiology and anatomy
- Quantitative Cardiovascular Physiology and Clinical Applications for Engineers