Sattler's layer

Sattler's layer, named after Hubert Sattler, an Austrian ophthalmologist, is one of five (or six[lower-alpha 1]) layers of medium-diameter blood vessels of the choroid, and a layer of the eye. It is situated between the Bruch's membrane, choriocapillaris and Haller's layer below, and the suprachoroidea above, respectively.[2] The origin seems to be related to a continuous differentiation throughout the growth of the tissue and even further differentiation during adulthood.[3][4]

Sattler's layer
Latinlamina vasculosa
Anatomical terminology

Measurement methods and clinical impact

After excision the choroid collapses partially, histologic preparations also alter the local pressure and fluid content of different sections in the tissue, thus requiring preparations with rubber solution or others that can conserve the vascular status of living tissue. Novel diagnostic methods, especially optical coherence tomography have widened the understanding of the real time, in vivo status of the different layers.[5]

Several papers have shown the relationship between the thickness of the choroidal, Sattler's and Haller's layer between healthy individuals and in people with age-related macular degeneration (AMA).[6] The studies showed significant reduction of layer thickness in relation to the progression of AMD, which may be important in the understanding of choriopathy in the pathophysiology of AMD. However, also strong variations even throughout the diurnal cycle,[7] as well as the influence of optical stimuli during eye-growth[8] indicate that the complex function of this tissue is not entirely understood and might be one of the reasons for the frequently found separation in vascular size between Haller's and Sattler's layer.


  1. Some authors consider the vascular region of the choroid as being two separate layers, namely Sattler's and Haller's layer,[1] and some consider the lamina fusca as being either of scleral or choroidal origin.


  1. Sattler, Hubert (1876). "Ueber den Feineren Bau der Chorioidea des Menschen nebst Beitraegen zur Pathologischen und Vergleichenden Anatomie der Aderhaut". Abrech von Graefe's Archiv für Ophthalmologie. 22 (2): 1–100. doi:10.1007/bf01705015. Retrieved 7 January 2017.
  2. L. Nickla, Debora; Wallman, Josh (2010). "The Multifunctional Choroid". Progress in Retinal and Eye Research. 29 (2): 144–168. doi:10.1016/j.preteyeres.2009.12.002. PMC 2913695. PMID 20044062.
  3. Heimann, K. (1976-01-01). "The Development of the Choroidal Vascular System". In Laey, J. J. De (ed.). International Symposium on Fluorescein Angiography Ghent 28 March—1 April 1976. Documenta Ophthalmologica Proceedings Series. 9. Springer Netherlands. pp. 181–186. doi:10.1007/978-94-010-1573-8_31. ISBN 9789061931492.
  4. Howard, Harvey (1917-01-01). "A Case Showing Multiple Congenital Abnormalities of the Eye; the Origin of the Vitreous Indicated by One of Them". Transactions of the American Ophthalmological Society. 15: 244–301. ISSN 0065-9533. PMC 1318126. PMID 16692420.
  5. Považay, Boris; Bizheva, K.; Hermann, B.; Unterhuber, A.; Sattmann, H.; Fercher, A.; Drexler, W.; Schubert, C.; Ahnelt, P. (2003-08-25). "Enhanced visualization of choroidal vessels using ultrahigh resolution ophthalmic OCT at 1050 nm" (PDF). Optics Express. 11 (17): 1980–1986. doi:10.1364/oe.11.001980. ISSN 1094-4087. PMID 19466083.
  6. Esmaeelpour, M.; Ansari-Shahrezaei, S.; Glittenberg, C.; Nemetz, S.; Kraus, M.F. (22 July 2014). "Choroid, Haller's, and Sattler's layer thickness in intermediate age-related macular degeneration with and without fellow neovascular eyes". Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science. 55 (8): 5074–80. doi:10.1167/iovs.14-14646. PMC 4132555. PMID 25052997.
  7. Brown, Jamin S.; Flitcroft, D. Ian; Ying, Gui-shuang; Francis, Ellie L.; Schmid, Gregor F.; Quinn, Graham E.; Stone, Richard A. (2009-01-01). "In Vivo Human Choroidal Thickness Measurements: Evidence for Diurnal Fluctuations". Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science. 50 (1): 5–12. doi:10.1167/iovs.08-1779. ISSN 1552-5783. PMC 4112498. PMID 18719079.
  8. Lam, Carly Siu Yin; Tang, Wing Chun; Tse, Dennis Yan-Yin; Tang, Ying Yung; To, Chi Ho (2014-01-01). "Defocus Incorporated Soft Contact (DISC) lens slows myopia progression in Hong Kong Chinese schoolchildren: a 2-year randomised clinical trial". British Journal of Ophthalmology. 98 (1): 40–45. doi:10.1136/bjophthalmol-2013-303914. ISSN 1468-2079. PMC 3888618. PMID 24169657.

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