The human waist
The waistline refers to the horizontal line where the waist is narrowest, or to the general appearance of the waist.
Because of this and because the waist is often synonymous with the stomach, one can become confused as to the exact location of the waist. Another confusing factor is that the waistline differs on different people. A study showed that self-reported measurements as opposed to measurement done by a technician, underestimated waist circumference and this underestimation increased with increased body size. In the study, waist circumference measured at the level of the umbilicus was larger than that measured at the natural waist. To locate the natural waistline, one need simply stand upright and then tilt over to the side keeping the legs and hips straight. Where the torso creases is the natural waistline.
Waist size (waist circumference) is an indicator of abdominal obesity. Excess abdominal fat is a risk factor for developing heart disease and other obesity related diseases. A study published in the European Heart Journal April 2007 showed that waist circumference and waist-hip ratio (defined as waist circumference divided by hip circumference) were predictors of cardiovascular events. The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) classifies the risk of obesity-related diseases as high if men have a waist circumference greater than 102 cm (40 in) and women have a waist circumference greater than 88 cm (35 in).
The waist is usually measured at the smallest circumference of the natural waist, usually just above the belly button. Where the waist is convex rather than concave, as in pregnancy and obesity, the waist may be measured at a vertical level 1 inch above the navel.
Strictly, the waist circumference is measured at a level midway between the lowest palpable rib and the iliac crest, respectively typically 60% and 64% of total height. It can be predicted as 72% of the neck height; an alternative approximation, very relevant in anthropometry, is Small of the Back (SOB) + 2cm.
It is important to note that variables such as posture significantly influence the measurement of the waist, and therefore any measurements for a group need to maintain a constant posture between the subjects.
Society and culture
In modern clothing the region referred to as the waist is considerably below the waist as defined anatomically. With the advent of pants and skirts that do not require support from above, the clothing waist moved down to a position where the body starts to expand to form the buttocks and a support is therefore available. However, the waist region remains a highly important measurement and anthropometric landmark in garment construction.
Jewellery, such as a belly chain, may be worn around either the clothing or anatomical waist.
Waist reduction and training
Waist reduction or waist training refer to the act of wearing a corset or other constricting garment to reduce or alter the waistline. The four floating ribs may be permanently compressed or moved by such garments. A girdle may also be used to alter the appearance of the waist.
Waist reduction may be used simply to reduce the width of the waist. This change can be permanent or temporary.
Waist training may be used to achieve a certain permanent waist shape, such as a pipe-stem waist.
Definition: "middle part of the body," also "part of a garment fitted for the waist, portion of a garment that covers the waist" (but, due to fashion styles, often above or below it), probably from Old English *wæst "growth," hence, "where the body grows," from Proto-Germanic *wahs-tu- (cognates: Old English wæstm, Old Norse vöxtr, Swedish växt, Old High German wahst "growth, increase," Gothic wahstus "stature," Old English weaxan "to grow".
|Look up waist in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|
- Bigaard, Janne; Spanggaard, Iben; Thomsen, Birthe Lykke; Overvad, Kim (1 September 2005). "Self-Reported and Technician-Measured Waist Circumferences Differ in Middle-Aged Men and Women". The Journal of Nutrition. 135 (9): 2263–2270. doi:10.1093/jn/135.9.2263. PMID 16140909.
- Lawrence de Koning; Merchant, AT; Pogue, J; Anand, SS (2007). "Waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio as predictors of cardiovascular events: meta-regression analysis of prospective studies". European Heart Journal. 28 (7): 850–6. doi:10.1093/eurheartj/ehm026. PMID 17403720.
- Obesity Education Initiative, Aim for a Healthy Weight
- Waist To Hip Calculator at University of Maryland Medical System. Retrieved Dec 2010
- Brown JE, Potter JD, Jacobs DR, et al. (January 1996). "Maternal waist-to-hip ratio as a predictor of newborn size: Results of the Diana Project". Epidemiology. 7 (1): 62–6. doi:10.1097/00001648-199601000-00011. JSTOR 3702758. PMID 8664403.
- Han, T.; Van Leer, E.; Seidell, J.; Lean, M. (1995). "Waist circumference action levels in the identification of cardiovascular risk factors: prevalence study in a random sample". BMJ (Clinical Research Ed.). 311 (7017): 1401–1405. doi:10.1136/bmj.311.7017.1401. PMC 2544423. PMID 8520275.
- Gill, Simeon; Parker, Christopher J. (2014). The True Height of the Waist: Explorations of Automated Body Scanner Waist Definitions of the TC2 scanner. Proc. Of 5th Int. Conf. On 3D Body Scanning Technologies. pp. 55–65. doi:10.15221/14.055. ISBN 9783033047631. Retrieved 1 May 2018.
- Gill, Simeon; Parker, Christopher J. (2017). "Scan posture definition and hip girth measurement: the impact on clothing design and body scanning". Ergonomics. 60 (8): 1123–1136. doi:10.1080/00140139.2016.1251621. PMID 27764997.
- Female Body Characteristics Related to Bra Fit - Page 20, 2007
- Gill, Simeon; Parker, Christopher J. (2016). "Scan posture definition and hip girth measurement: the impact on clothing design and body scanning". Ergonomics. 60 (8): 1123–1136. doi:10.1080/00140139.2016.1251621. PMID 27764997.
- "waist - Origin and meaning of waist by Online Etymology Dictionary". www.etymonline.com.
- . Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). 1911.
- Measured average height, weight, and waist circumference for adults ages 20 years and over (U.S.)