Vocal process

In the human larynx, the vocal process is the anterior angle of the base of the arytenoid cartilage, as it projects horizontally forward and gives attachment to the vocal ligament.

Vocal process
Posterior view of the cartilages of the larynx
Latinprocessus vocalis
Anatomical terminology

The arytenoids are paired cartilages with a medial and a lateral process each. The medial process is called the vocal process because it is the attachment for the vocal ligament. The lateral process is the attachment of one of the major intrinsic muscles of the vocal folds and consequently named the muscular process.[1]

As the concave bases of the arytenoid cartilages move on the two convex articular surfaces on the cricoid cartilage (at the cricoarytenoid articulations), the vocal processes are brought closer to each other, which permits the vocal folds to make contact (adduct) and abduct.[2]

Just above the vocal process is a shallow depression, the oblong fovea of the arytenoid cartilage. Together they constitute the insertion for the vocalis muscle.[3]

Vocal process granulomas are rare and benign lesions that occur in 0.9–2.7% of adults with a voice disorder. Most occurrences and forms of vocal process granulomas regress spontaneously without any specific treatment, even large ones.[4]


This article incorporates text in the public domain from page 1075 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy (1918)

  1. Rosen, C. A.; Simpson, B., eds. (2008). "Anatomy and Physiology of the Larynx". Operative Techniques in Laryngology. doi:10.1007/978-3-540-68107-6_1. ISBN 978-3-540-25806-3.
  2. Seikel, J. Anthony; King, Douglas W.; Drumright, David G. (2010). Anatomy & Physiology for Speech, Language, and Hearing (4th ed.). Delmar, NY: Cengage Learning. ISBN 1-4283-1223-4.
  3. Feneis, Heinz (2000). Dauber, Wolfgang (ed.). Pocket Atlas of Human Anatomy: Based on the International Nomenclature. Thieme. ISBN 9783135112046. Retrieved October 2013. Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)
  4. Wang, Cheng-Ping; Ko, Jenq-Yuh; Wang, Yung-Han; Hu, Ya-Ling; Hsiao, Tzu-Yu (2009). "Vocal process granuloma – A result of long-term observation in 53 patients" (PDF). Oral Oncology. 45 (9): 821–825. doi:10.1016/j.oraloncology.2009.01.008. Retrieved October 2013. Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)
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