Vascular disease is a class of diseases of the blood vessels – the arteries and veins of the circulatory system of the body. It is a subgroup of cardiovascular disease. Disorders in this vast network of blood vessels, can cause a range of health problems which can be severe or prove fatal.
|Veins and arteries|
|Types||Peripheral artery disease, Renal artery stenosis|
|Diagnostic method||Venography, Ultrasound|
|Treatment||Quit smoking, Lower cholesterol|
There are several types of vascular disease, (which is a subgroup of cardiovascular disease), the signs and symptoms depend on which type, among them are:
- Erythromelalgia - a rare peripheral vascular disease where syndromes includes burning pain, increased temperature, erythema and swelling, of mainly the hands and feet are affected.
- Peripheral artery disease – happens when atheromatous plaques build up in the arteries that supply blood to the arms and legs, plaque causes the arteries to narrow or become blocked.
- Renal artery stenosis - is the narrowing of renal arteries that carry blood to the kidneys from the aorta.
- Buerger's disease – is due to small blood vessels that inflame and swell, vessels then narrow or are blocked by blood clots.
- Raynaud's disease – a rare peripheral vascular disorder of constriction of the peripheral blood vessels, in the fingers and toes when the person is cold.
- Disseminated intravascular coagulation – a widespread activation of clotting in the smaller blood vessels.
- Cerebrovascular disease–a group of vascular diseases that affect brain function.
Vascular disease is a pathological state of large and medium muscular arteries and is triggered by endothelial cell dysfunction. Because of factors like pathogens, oxidized LDL particles and other inflammatory stimuli endothelial cells become active. The process causes thickening of the vessel wall, forming a plaque that consists of proliferating smooth muscle cells, macrophages and lymphocytes. The plaque results in a restricted blood flow which will decrease the amount of oxygen and nutrients that reach certain organs, the plaque might rupture causing the formation of clots.
It can be difficult to make a vascular disease diagnosis since there are a variety of symptoms that a person can have, also family history and a physical examination are important. The physical exam may be different depending on the type of vascular disease. In the case of a peripheral vascular disease the physical exam consists in checking the blood flow in the legs.
Treatment varies with the type of vascular disease; in the case of renal artery disease, information from a meta-analysis indicated that balloon angioplasty results in improvement of diastolic blood pressure and a reduction in antihypertensive drug requirements. In the case of peripheral artery disease, preventing complications is important; without treatment, sores or gangrene (tissue death) may occur. Among the treatments are:
- "Peripheral Arterial Disease: MedlinePlus". www.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 2015-06-23.
- "Renal Artery Stenosis". www.niddk.nih.gov. Retrieved 2015-06-23.
- "Vascular Diseases: MedlinePlus". www.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 2015-06-23.
- "How Is Peripheral Arterial Disease Treated? - NHLBI, NIH". www.nhlbi.nih.gov. Retrieved 2015-06-23.
- Hirsch, Alan T.; Haskal, Ziv J.; Hertzer, Norman R.; Bakal, Curtis W.; Creager, Mark A.; Halperin, Jonathan L.; Hiratzka, Loren F.; Murphy, William R.C.; Olin, Jeffrey W.; Puschett, Jules B.; Rosenfield, Kenneth A.; Sacks, David; Stanley, James C.; Taylor, Lloyd M.; White, Christopher J.; White, John; White, Rodney A.; Antman, Elliott M.; Smith, Sidney C.; Adams, Cynthia D.; Anderson, Jeffrey L.; Faxon, David P.; Fuster, Valentin; Gibbons, Raymond J.; Halperin, Jonathan L.; Hiratzka, Loren F.; Hunt, Sharon A.; Jacobs, Alice K.; Nishimura, Rick; et al. (2006). "ACC/AHA 2005 Guidelines for the Management of Patients With Peripheral Arterial Disease (Lower Extremity, Renal, Mesenteric, and Abdominal Aortic): A Collaborative Report from the American Association for Vascular Surgery/Society for Vascular Surgery,⁎ Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, Society for Vascular Medicine and Biology, Society of Interventional Radiology, and the ACC/AHA Task Force on Practice Guidelines (Writing Committee to Develop Guidelines for the Management of Patients With Peripheral Arterial Disease)". Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 47 (6): e1–e192. doi:10.1016/j.jacc.2006.02.024. Retrieved 2016-02-02.
- "Erythromelalgia". nhs.uk. 2017-10-18. Retrieved 2019-01-04.
- "Thromboangiitis obliterans: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia". www.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 2015-06-23.
- "Raynaud's Disease: MedlinePlus". www.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 2015-06-23.
- "Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC): MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia". www.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 2015-06-25.
- Rajendran, Peramaiyan; Rengarajan, Thamaraiselvan; Thangavel, Jayakumar; Nishigaki, Yutaka; Sakthisekaran, Dhanapal; Sethi, Gautam; Nishigaki, Ikuo (2013). "The Vascular Endothelium and Human Diseases". International Journal of Biological Sciences. 9 (10): 1057–1069. doi:10.7150/ijbs.7502. ISSN 1449-2288. PMC 3831119. PMID 24250251.
- Bikfalvi, Andreas (2013-12-19). Encyclopedic Reference of Vascular Biology & Pathology. Springer. ISBN 9783642570636.
- Rubin, Emanuel; Damjanov, Ivan (2013-11-11). Pathology Reviews · 1989. Springer Science & Business Media. ISBN 9781461245025.
- Gunstone, Frank D.; Harwood, John L.; Dijkstra, Albert J. (2007-03-13). The Lipid Handbook with CD-ROM, Third Edition. CRC Press. ISBN 9781420009675.
- Rolfes, Sharon Rady; Pinna, Kathryn; Whitney, Ellie (2011-06-20). Understanding Normal and Clinical Nutrition. Cengage Learning. ISBN 978-0840068453.
- "How Is Peripheral Arterial Disease Diagnosed? - NHLBI, NIH". www.nhlbi.nih.gov. Retrieved 2015-06-23.
- Andras, Alina; Ferket, Bart (2014). "Screening for peripheral arterial disease". Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (4): CD010835. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD010835.pub2. PMID 24711093.
- Jenks, Sara; Yeoh, Su Ern; Conway, Bryan R. (2014). "Balloon angioplasty, with and without stenting, versus medical therapy for hypertensive patients with renal artery stenosis". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 12 (12): CD002944. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD002944.pub2. ISSN 1469-493X. PMID 25478936.
- "The effects of lowering LDL cholesterol with statin therapy in people at low risk of vascular disease: meta-analysis of individual data from 27 randomised trials". www.crd.york.ac.uk. Retrieved 2015-06-23.