Pharyngeal pouch (embryology)
In the embryonic development of vertebrates, pharyngeal pouches form on the endodermal side between the pharyngeal arches. The pharyngeal grooves (or clefts) form the lateral ectodermal surface of the neck region to separate the arches.
Pattern of the branchial arches. I-IV branchial arches, 1–4 pharyngeal pouches (inside) and/or pharyngeal grooves (outside)
a Tuberculum laterale
b Tuberculum impar
c Foramen cecum
d Ductus thyreoglossus
e Sinus cervicalis
Floor of pharynx of human embryo about twenty-six days old.
The pouches line up with the clefts, and these thin segments become gills in fish.
The endoderm lines the future auditory tube (Pharyngotympanic Eustachian tube), middle ear, mastoid antrum, and inner layer of the tympanic membrane. Derivatives of this pouch are supplied by Mandibular nerve.
- Contributes the middle ear, palatine tonsils, supplied by the facial nerve.
- The third pouch possesses Dorsal and Ventral wings. Derivatives of the dorsal wings include the inferior parathyroid glands, while the ventral wings fuse to form the cytoreticular cells of the thymus. The main nerve supply to the derivatives of this pouch is Cranial Nerve IX, glossopharyngeal nerve.
- superior parathyroid glands and ultimobranchial body which forms the parafollicular C-Cells of the thyroid gland.
- Musculature and cartilage of larynx (along with the sixth pharyngeal arch).
- Nerve supplying these derivatives is Superior laryngeal nerve.
- Rudimentary structure, becomes part of the fourth pouch contributing to thyroid C-cells.
- The fourth and sixth pouches contribute to the formation of the musculature and cartilage of the larynx. Nerve supply is by the recurrent laryngeal nerve.
- Pharyngeal arch (often called branchial arch although this is more specifically a fish structure)
- DiGeorge syndrome
- List of human cell types derived from the germ layers
- "pharyngeal pouch" at Dorland's Medical Dictionary
- Endocrine Glands Archived 2008-03-14 at the Wayback Machine
- Swiss embryology (from UL, UB, and UF) rrespiratory/korperhohlen01 (Item #1 at Fig. 14)
- Embryology at Temple parch98/ARCHII97/sld017
- hednk-021—Embryo Images at University of North Carolina
- hednk-022—Embryo Images at University of North Carolina
- Outline at howard.edu (scroll down to "III. THE PHARYNGEAL POUCHES")
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