Medical Scientist Training Program
The Medical Scientist Training Programs (MSTPs) are MD-PhD training programs that streamline the education towards MD and PhD graduate degrees. MSTPs are offered by some United States medical schools, who are awarded financial support from the National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS), a branch of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). The goal of these training programs is to produce physician scientists who can translate laboratory discoveries into effective treatments for patients. In 2018, there were 50 NIH-funded MSTP programs in the US, supporting about 900 students at all stages of the program.
The program has its origins in the non-NIH funded MD-PhD training offered at the nation's research-centric medical schools. The first dual-degree program began at Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine in 1956. Other prominent medical schools quickly followed this example and developed integrated MD-PhD training structures. In 1964 the NIH created Medical Scientist Training Program to begin funding this medical and research education.
Admission to MSTPs is the most competitive of all graduate medical education programs in the country. In 2018, 672 of 1855 total applicants successfully matriculated into MD-PhD programs, but only 513 of these slots were at MSTPs, making the matriculation rate for MSTPs nationally 27.7%. 
In comparison, MD-only programs had 40,174 positions for a total of 95,797 applicants (a 41.9% matriculation rate). At each institution, these acceptance rates are varied and are often far more competitive than the national data. Applicants must have very strong MCAT scores and GPAs to be considered for positions in MSTP. Reflecting this fact, from 2018 to 2019 the average GPA and MCAT for matriculants to MSTPs were 3.79 and 515.6, respectively. . MSTP applicants will often have very strong research experience as well, in addition to the typical qualifications required from MD-only applicants.
Interviews for admissions at MSTPs tend to focus on the applicant's career goals and past experiences in scientific research. These may include short research talks or presentations followed by rigorous questioning by an interviewer or interviewing committee. MSTP applicants are often required to demonstrate a deep understanding of their past research projects. Multiple interview sessions conducted by different interviewers that last for 2 days are very common. At some MSTPs, applicants may also be required (or be offered the chance) to interview with the MD-only program.
MSTP matriculants receive substantial financial awards that make them financially competitive to their MD-only counterparts even with the longer training periods. These allowances cover all tuition expenses, provide travel and supply allowances, and accommodate living expenses through an annual stipend (ranging from $26,000 to $39,000). Overall grants typically range from $600,000 - $1,000,000. These monetary awards compare to approximately $250,000 of pre-tax income.
Since MSTP grants are a type of National Research Service Award, students must be nationals (citizens or noncitizens) of the United States or possess a I-151 or I-551 alien registration receipt. However many MSTPs offer non-MSTP grant funded positions, allowing for non-citizens and non-legalized nationals to be accepted into the MD-PhD program at that particular school. These programs are indistinguishable between the students besides the funding source. Furthermore, many non-MSTP medical schools have MD-PhD programs that are not supported by the NIH but offer similar training opportunities and grant money.
Several MSTPs allow for the PhD portion of the MSTP to be completed outside the home university at an allied institution. These relationships provide additional and sometimes stronger research opportunities to students in these MSTPs.
|Institution||Year Founded||Allied Institution(s)|
|Albert Einstein College of Medicine||1964|
|Baylor College of Medicine||1976||Rice University|
|Case Western Reserve University||1975||Cleveland Clinic|
|Cornell University||1974||Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center and The Rockefeller University (Tri-Institutional MD-PhD Program)|
|Emory University||1976||Georgia Institute of Technology|
|Harvard University||1974||Massachusetts Institute of Technology|
|Indiana University||2008||Purdue University|
|Johns Hopkins University||1975|
|Mayo Medical School||2003|
|Medical College of Wisconsin||2010|
|Medical University of South Carolina||1999|
|Mount Sinai School of Medicine||1976|
|New York University||1964|
|Oregon Health and Science University||2016|
|Penn State University||2018|
|Stony Brook University||1992||Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory and Brookhaven National Laboratory|
|The Ohio State University||2011|
|The State University of New York, University at Buffalo|
|University of Alabama
|University of California, Irvine||1999|
|University of California, Los Angeles||1983||California Institute of Technology|
|University of California, San Diego||1975||Salk Institute, The Scripps Research Institute, Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute, and La Jolla Institute for Allergy and Immunology|
|University of California, San Francisco||1977||University of California, Berkeley|
|University of Chicago||1968|
|University of Cincinnati||2002||Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center|
|University of Colorado, Denver||1993||The University of Colorado at Boulder and National Jewish Health|
|University of Illinois at Chicago||2007|
|University of Iowa||1976|
|University of Maryland, Baltimore||2010||University of Maryland, College Park|
|University of Massachusetts||2013|
|University of Michigan||1980|
|University of Minnesota||1988|
|University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill||1999||North Carolina State University|
|University of Pennsylvania||1969|
|University of Pittsburgh||1987||Carnegie Mellon University|
|University of Rochester||1973|
|University of Texas Southwestern||1982|
|University of Virginia||1976|
|University of Washington||1970|
|University of Wisconsin-Madison||1968|
|Washington University in St. Louis||1969|
According to a 2010 report of students from the 1970s-2010s, 95% of MSTP graduates entered a residency program after graduation.
Applicants for NIH research grants that completed an MSTP program were three times more likely to be successfully funded than graduates with an MD/PhD that did not participate in an MSTP program.
Non-MSTP MD-PhD programs
A number of medical schools without funded NIH MSTP grant slots maintain their own non-MSTP MD-PhD combined degree programs, sometimes offering full or partial student financial support funded by the schools themselves. Currently, 75 institutions provide a means for non-MSTP MD-PhD education in the United States. Internationally, there are 34 institutions that provide MD–PhD training.
- American Physician Scientists Association
- "Medical Scientist Training Program". National Institute of General Medical Sciences. 2015-07-29. Retrieved 2016-02-20.
- "Medical Scientist Training Program (MSTP) Institutions - National Institute of General Medical Sciences". Publications.nigms.nih.gov. 2015-07-29. Retrieved 2016-09-22.
- "CWRU Medical Scientist Training Program (MSTP)". cwru.edu. Retrieved 2012-06-20.
- "Enrollment, Graduates, and MD/PhD Data - FACTS: Applicants, Matriculants, Enrollment, Graduates, MD/PhD, and Residency Applicants Data - Data and Analysis - AAMC". www.aamc.org.
- "data". www.aamc.org.
- "Fact sheet" (PDF). www.aamc.org. Retrieved 2019-05-21.
- "MSTP Study: The Careers and Professional Activities of Graduates of the NIGMS Medical Scientist Training Program". Publications.nigms.nih.gov. 2011-04-22. Retrieved 2012-06-15.
- "Medical Scientist Training Program - Mayo Graduate School - Mayo Clinic". mayo.edu. Retrieved 2015-09-09.
- http://projectreporter.nih.gov/project_info_details.cfm?aid=8501532&icde=0. Missing or empty
- http://projectreporter.nih.gov/project_info_details.cfm?aid=8499312&icde=0. Missing or empty
- "OHSU MD-PhD Medical Scientist Training Program". Retrieved 2016-12-27.
- "NIH Funds OSU Medical Scientist Training Program - College of Medicine News". Medicine.osu.edu. 2011-06-14. Retrieved 2012-06-15.
- "UCI MSTP History". uci.edu. Retrieved 2012-06-18.
- "Physician Scientist Training Program Awarded NIH Designation". healthnews.uc.edu. 2002-07-10. Retrieved 2012-06-24.
- http://projectreporter.nih.gov/project_info_details.cfm?aid=8500353&icde=0. Missing or empty
- http://projectreporter.nih.gov/project_info_details.cfm?aid=8501545&icde=0. Missing or empty
- https://web.archive.org/web/20140306233518/https://www.umassmed.edu/GSBS/news/2013/mdphd/Medical-Scientist-Training-Program-Award/index.aspx. Archived from the original on 2014-03-06. Missing or empty
- "History — UNC MD-PhD Program - (UNC School of Medicine)". Med.unc.edu. Retrieved 2012-06-15.
- Physician Scientist Working Group Report https://acd.od.nih.gov/documents/reports/PSW_Report_ACD_06042014.pdf
- "DO/PhD Programs". APSA - American Physician Scientists Association. Archived from the original on 2012-05-09. Retrieved 2012-06-19.
- "DO/PhD Programs". Archived from the original on 2012-02-19. Retrieved 2012-06-19.
- NIH Overview
- American Physician Scientists Association
- List of NIH MSTPs
- Ulane, Rod (3 October 2003). "Careers: The M.D./Ph.D.: An Academic Path to a Career as a Physician-Scientist". Science.