List of eponymously named medical signs

Eponymous medical signs are those that are named after a person or persons, usually the physicians who first described them, but occasionally named after a famous patient. This list includes other eponymous entities of diagnostic significance; i.e. tests, reflexes, etc.

Letter Sign Name Specialty Associated conditions External link
(if no internal link)
AAaron signCharles Dettie Aaronsurgeryappendicitisepigastric pain with pressure on McBurney's point
AAbadie's signJean Marie Charles AbadieendocrinologyGraves' diseaselevator palpebrae superioris spasm
AAbadie's symptomJoseph Louis Irenée Jean Abadieneurologytabes dorsalisabsence of pain on Achilles tendon pressure
AAbderhalden reactionEmil Abderhaldenobstetricspregnancyserum reaction;obsolete
AAbelin reactionIsaak Abelininfectious diseasesyphilispresence of arsenical anti-syphilitic;obsolete
AAddis countThomas Addisnephrologypyelonephritisquantitative cells and casts in 24hr. urine
AAdie pupilWilliam John Adieneurologyciliary nerve damagedilated pupil, poorly reactive but with normal near accommodation
AAdson's signAlfred Washington Adsonvascular surgerythoracic outlet syndromeobliteration of radial pulse with manoeuvres
AAlexander's lawGustav Alexanderneurology, neurosurgery, ENTvestibular lesionsdescribes nystagmus in vestibular lesions
AAllen's testEdgar Van Nuys Allenvascular surgery, critical care[1]arterial supply of the handtests for presence of palmar ulnar-radial anastomosis (palmar arch)
AApgar scoreVirginia Apgarobstetricsassess health of newborn
AApley grind testAlan Graham Apleyorthopaedic surgerymeniscal lesionsmanoeuvres to elicit knee pain
AArgyll Robertson pupilsDouglas Moray Cooper Lamb Argyll Robertsonneurologyneurosyphilis[2]light-near dissociation
AArneth countJosef Arnethhaematology, nutritionfolate deficiencylobulation of neutrophil nuclei
AAsboe-Hansen signGustav Asboe-Hansendermatologybullaeextension of a blister to adjacent unblistered skin when pressed
AAschheim–Zondek testSelmar Aschheim, Bernhard Zondekobstetricsnormal pregnancysynd/1834 at Who Named It?oestral reaction in mouse injected with pregnant urine
AAschoff bodyKarl Albert Ludwig Aschoffrheumatology, pathologyrheumatic feverfoci of interstitial inflammatiuon in the myocardium and elsewhere
AAshby techniqueWinifred Ashbyhaematology, pathologyhaemolysissynd/233 at Who Named It?agglutination test for erythrocyte survival
AAuberger's blood groupAuberger (patient)haematologynormal physiologysynd/283 at Who Named It?Aua antigen
AAuenbrugger's signJosef Leopold Auenbruggercardiologypericardial effusionsynd/284 at Who Named It?bulging epigastrium
AAuer rodsJohn Auerhematologyacute myeloid leukemiacytoplasmic inclusions in myeloblasts
AAuspitz's signHeinrich Auspitzdermatologypsoriasispinpoint bleeding when scales are removed from psoriasis or warts
AAustin Flint murmurAustin Flintcardiologyaortic insufficiencymid-diastolic rumble heard at apex
BBabinski signJoseph Babinskineurologyabnormal plantar reflexKumar SP, Ramasubramanian D (December 2000). "The Babinski sign—a reappraisal". Neurol India. 48 (4): 314–8. PMID 11146592. Retrieved 13 April 2009.dorsiflexion of the hallux with fanning of the remaining phalanges upon soft stimulation of the lateral plantar surface of the foot
BBainbridge reflexFrancis Arthur Bainbridgecardiologynormal physiologyincrease in heart rate with increase in circulating blood volume
BBalbiani ringsEdouard-Gérard BalbianigeneticsRNA transcriptionsynd/601 at Who Named It?large chromosome puff indicating site of RNA transcription
BBallance's signCharles Alfred Ballancegeneral surgeryabdominal/splenic traumapercussive dullness left flank, LUQ, percussive resonance right flank
BBancroft's signJoseph Bancroftvascular medicinedeep vein thrombosispain on anterior, but not lateral, compression of calf
BBárány testRobert BárányENT, neurologyvertigo, vestibular dysfunctionsynd/595 at Who Named It?nystagmus elicited by hot or cold irrigation of ear canal
BBarlow's maneuverThomas Geoffrey Barlow, English Pediatric Orthopedist, (19151975)paediatrics, orthopaedic surgeryhip dysplasiadislocation on adduction of hip
BBart hemoglobinBarts HospitalObstetrics, pathologyindicates a specific cause of death in some stillbornsLoss of all four alpha-globin genes (total alpha-thalassemia) leads to severely anemic stillborn babies with small amounts of an abnormal hemoglobin composed of four gamma sub-units (Bart's Hemoglobin)
BBastian–Bruns signHenry Charlton Bastian, Ludwig Brunsneurologyspinal cord transectionloss of muscle tone and reflexes below lesion level
BBattle's signWilliam Henry Battleneurosurgery/traumatologybasal skull fracturemastoid ecchymosis
BBeau's linesJoseph Honoré Simon Beaudermatology, internal medicinemultiple, including traumatransverse ridges on nails
BBeck's triadClaude Schaeffer Beckcardiologycardiac tamponadehypotension, increased central venous pressure (JVP), distant heart sounds
BBecker's signOtto Heinrich Enoch Beckerophthalmology, endocrinologythyrotoxicosisvisible pulsation of retinal arteries
BBeevor's signCharles Edward Beevorneurology, neurosurgeryspinal trauma at T10, als, fsmdcaudal movement of navel on cervical flexion
BBekhterev–Jacobsohn reflexVladimir Bekhterev, Louis Jacobsohn-Laskneurologypyramidal tract lesionsstroking dorsal radial skin, with forearm in supination, elicits wrist and finger flexion
BBekhterev–Mendel reflexVladimir Bekhterev, Kurt Mendelneurologypyramidal tract lesionstoe flexion on percussion of dorsum of foot
BBence Jones proteinHenry Bence Joneshematologymultiple myeloma
BBenedict solutionStanley Rossiter Benedictendocrinologydiabetes mellitusreagent for presence of monosaccharides
BBerger wave (rhythm)Hans Bergerneurologynormal physiologyelectroencephalographic alpha wave
BBezold–Jarisch reflexAlbert von Bezold, Adolf Jarischpharmacology, toxicologyeffect of certain alkaloidsapnea, bradycardia, hypotension
BBielschowsky's head tilt testAlfred Bielschowskyneurology, ophthalmologylesions of cranial nerve IVtest for palsy of superior oblique muscle
BBing's signPaul Robert Bingneurologypyramidal tract lesionsextension of the great toe on pricking the dorsum of the foot with a pin
BBiot's respirationCamille Biotneurologybrain stem herniationquick shallow respirations followed by period of apnea
BBitot's spotsPierre Bitôtophthalmologyvitamin A deficiencyspots of keratin deposition in the conjunctiva
BBjerrum scotomaJannik Peterson Bjerrumophthalmologyglaucomacomet shaped visual field defect, extending temporally from the physiological blind spot
BBlumberg signJacob Moritz Blumbergsurgeryperitonitisrebound tenderness
BBoas' pointIsmar Isidor Boasgastroenterologygastric ulcerdermal hyperaesthesia just left of T12
BBoas' signIsmar Isidor Boasgastroenterologyacute cholecystitisdermal hyperaesthesia at inferior angle of R scapula
BBodansky unitAaron Bodanskyclinical chemistryunit of alkaline phosphatase concentration in blood
BBoston's signLeonard N. Bostonophthalmology, endocrinologythyrotoxicosisspasmodic ptosis on downward gaze
BBouchard's nodesCharles-Joseph Bouchardrheumatologyosteoarthritisbony outgrowths on dorsa of proximal interphalangeal joints
BBracht–Wachter bodiesErich Franz Eugen Bracht, Hermann Julius Gustav Wächtercardiologyinfective endocarditisyellow-white spots in the myocardium
BBranham's signHenry Branhampressing on proximal portion of AV fistula results in bradycardia
BBraxton Hicks contractionJohn Braxton Hicksobstetricsnormal pregnancy"false labour". sporadic contractions beginning as early as mid 1st trimester
BBrewer infarctsGeorge Emerson Brewernephrology, pathologypyelonephritisdark red wedge shaped areas on kidney section resembling infarcts
BBrissaud's reflexÉdouard Brissaudneurologypyramidal tract lesionsplantar stimulation elicits contraction of tensor fasciae latae
BBroadbent inverted signSir William Broadbent, 1st BaronetcardiologyL atrial hypertrophysystole palpable in posterior chest wall
BBroadbent signWalter Broadbentcardiologyadhesive pericarditisrecession of L inferior intercostal spaces
BBroca aphasiaPaul Brocaneurology, neuropsychologydevelopmental or other pathology of various frontal cortical areasexpressive aphasia
BBrodie–Trendelenburg percussion testSir Benjamin Collins Brodie, 1st Baronet, Friedrich Trendelenburggeneral medicine, surgeryvaricose veinssuperficial vein is percussed proximally; if impulse is felt over vein distally, valvular incompetence is present
BBudin's signPierre-Constant Budinsurgery, obstetricssuppurative mastitisif breast milk flown into a sterile pad is mixed with pus (brown, yellow or bloody traces), mastitis may be present
BBrodie–Trendelenburg testSir Benjamin Collins Brodie, 1st Baronet, Friedrich Trendelenburggeneral medicine, surgeryvaricose veinsidentifies level of valvular incompetence
BBrudziński neck signJózef Brudzińskineurologymeningitisneck flexion elicits hip and knee flexion
BBrudziński cheek signJózef Brudzińskineurologymeningitispressure beneath zygoma elicits flexion of forearm
BBrudziński symphyseal signJózef Brudzińskineurologymeningitispressure over symphisis pubis elicits knee, hip flexion and leg abduction
BBrudziński reflexJózef Brudzińskineurologymeningitispassive flexion of knee to abdomen elicits flexion of contralateral hip and knee
BBruit de RogerHenri-Louis Rogerpaediatric cardiologyventricular septal defectloud pansystolic murmur
BBruns ataxiaLudwig Brunsneurologyfrontal lobe lesionsdifficulty moving feet in contact with floor, tendency to fall backwards
BBruns nystagmusLudwig Brunsneurologycerebellopontine angle tumor, vestibular schwannomanystagmus that coarsens in amplitude on lateral gaze
BBrushfield spotsThomas Brushfieldophthalmology, geneticsDowns' syndrome or non-pathologicalgreyish-white spots at periphery of iris
BBuerger's test?general medicine, surgeryperipheral artery disease(needed)pallor of the leg upon elevation
BBurton lineHenry Burtontoxicologylead poisoningNEJM 354:e21 5/18/06blue discolouration of the gingival border
CCabot ringsRichard Cabothematologylead poisoning, anaemiasthreadlike strands in erythrocytes
CCaput medusaeMedusagastroenterology, surgeryportal hypertensiondistended veins radiating from umbilicus
CCardarelli's signAntonio Cardarellicardiology, thoracic surgeryaortic arch dilatation or aneurysm, mediastinal tumourleft displacement of trachea elicits palpable pulsation of same
CCarey Coombs murmurCarey Coombscardiology, rheumatologyrheumatic fevermid-diastolic rumble
CCarnett's signJohn Berton Carnettprimary care, surgeryabdominal mass and/or painAm J Med Sci 174 (1927): 579–599supine patient lifts head from bed;↑ pain – abdominal wall ;↓ pain – intraperitoneal
CCarvallo's signJosé Manuel Rivero Carvallocardiologytricuspid regurgitationincrease in volume of murmur on inspiration
CCasal collarGaspar Casalnutritionpellagra (niacin deficiency)Casal collar at Medscapewidely variable collar of dermatitis characteristically in c3,c4 dermatomes
CCasoni testTomaso Casoniinfectious disease, tropical medicinehydatid diseaseintradermal injection of hydatid fluid causing wheal
CCelsus signs of inflammationAulus Cornelius Celsusvariousinflammation1. Rubor (redness) 2. Tumor (swelling)3. Calor (heat) 4. Dolor (pain)
CChaddock reflexCharles Gilbert Chaddockneurologypyramidal lesions, corticospinal tract lesionsextension of big toe with stimulation of skin over lateral malleolus
CChadwick signJames Read Chadwickobstetricspregnancycyanosis of vulva, vagina and cervix
CCharcot's triadJean-Martin Charcotsurgeryascending cholangitisjaundice, fever and chills, RUQ pain
CCharcot's triadJean-Martin Charcotneurologymultiple sclerosisnystagmus, intention tremor, staccato speech
CCharcot–Leyden crystalsJean-Martin Charcot, Ernst Viktor von Leydenpathologyany disorder characterized by eosinophil proliferation, e.g. ascariasislysophospholipase crystals in various tissues
CCheyne–Stokes respirationJohn Cheyne, William Stokespalliative carerespiratory center damagefluctuation between apnoea and tachypnoea
CChurchill–Cope reflexEdward Delos Churchill, Oliver Copecardiologyheart failuredistension of pulmonary vascular bed causes tachypnoea
CChvostek signFrantišek Chvostekendocrinologyhypocalcemiatapping over facial nerve elicits abnormal muscle contraction(s)
CClaybrook signEdwin Claybrookemergency medicine, surgeryblunt abdominal traumaheart and/or breath sounds heard through abdominal wall indicate rupture of viscus
CClutton's jointsHenry Hugh Cluttonpaediatricscongenital syphilispainless symmetrical hydrarthroses, particularly of the knees
CCodman's triangleErnest Codmanoncology, orthopaedic surgery, radiologyosteosarcoma, Ewing's sarcomatriangular subperiosteal growth
CComby signJules Combypaediatricsrubeolawhitish patches on gingiva and buccal mucosa
CComolli's signAntonio ComolliOrthopaedic surgeryScapular fracture"Comolli's sign". The Free Dictionary. Retrieved 29 May 2013.triangular swelling corresponding to the outline of the scapula
CCoombs testRobin Coombshematologyhemolytic anemia
CCoons fluorescent antibody methodAlbert CoonsimmunologyAlbert Coons at National Academies Pressdetection of antibodies by fluorescence microscopy using fluorescein-labelled antibodies
CCornell's signEthel L. Cornell, American Neuropsychologist and Psychiatrist, Columbia University NY (1882-1972)neurologypyramidal tract lesionsThe Babinski sign – a reappraisal Neurol India 48 (4): 314–8.scratching alongside big toe extensor tendon elicits an extensor plantar response
CCorrigan pulseDominic John Corrigancardiologyaortic insufficiencycarotid pulsations with abrupt ascending and descending phases
CCouncilman bodyWilliam Thomas Councilmaninfectious diseaseyellow fever, viral haemorrhagic feverseosinophilic globules in liver
CCourvoisier's lawLudwig Georg Courvoisiergastroenterologyobstructive jaundicepalpable gall bladder w/ painless jaundice unlikely to be cholelithiasis
CCrichton-Browne signSir James Crichton-Browneneuropsychiatry'general paresis'tremor at corners of mouth and of outer canthus
CCrowe signFrank W. Crowedermatologyneurofibromatosis type Iaxillary freckling
CCruveilhier–Baumgarten bruitJean Cruveilhier, Paul Clemens von BaumgartenhepatologyCruveilhier–Baumgarten diseasebruit around the umbilicus
CCullen's signThomas S. Cullensurgeryintra-abdominal haemorrhageecchymosis around umbilicus predicts onset of acute pancreatitis
CCurschmann spiralsHeinrich Curschmannpulmonologyasthmaspiral mucus plugs found in sputum
CCushing's triadHarvey Cushingneurologyraised intracranial pressureelevated systolic bp, bradycardia, irregular respiration
DDagher ManeuverNabil Daghertrauma surgerypenetrating pelvic traumabimanual palpation of foreign object lodged in pelvis with one digit in an incision lateral to the anus and the other digit inserted in the rectum
DDahlén–Fuchs nodulesJohan Dahlén, Ernst Fuchsophthalmologysympathetic ophthalmiagranulocytic infiltrate of the uvea
DDahl's signK.V. DahlpulmonologyCOPDpigmented calluses on anterior surface of thighs (from leaning on elbows)
DDalrymple signJohn Dalrympleophthalmology, endocrinologythyrotoxicosissynd/494 at Who Named It?widened palpebral opening
DDance's signJean Baptiste Hippolyte Dance(paediatric)surgeryileo-cecal intussusceptionsynd/3355 at Who Named It?empty RLQ (retracted right iliac fossa)
DDarier's signFerdinand-Jean Darierallergy, dermatologyurticaria pigmentosadermatographia
DDawson's fingersJames Walker Dawsonneurologymultiple sclerosis characteristic fingerlike appearance of lateral ventricle on mri, ct, or at autopsy
DDe Musset's signAlfred de Mussetcardiologyaortic insufficiencyhead nodding in time with heartbeat
DDennie–Morgan foldCharles Clayton Dennie
DB Morgan
dermatologyatopic dermatitisDennie's line at TheFreeDictionary.comaccentuated fold below the lower eyelid
DDestot's signEtienne Destotorthopaedic surgerypelvic fractureecchymosis superior to inguinal ligament, in scrotum or of thigh
DDix–Hallpike testMargaret R. Dix, Charles Skinner HallpikeOtolaryngologyBenign paroxysmal positional vertigosynd/3615 at Who Named It?Elicitation of extreme vertigo upon lateral movement of a patient's head when lying in a supine position
DDöhle bodiesKarl Gottfried Paul Döhlepathologyvarious including trauma and neoplasmbasophilic inclusions in peripheral cytoplasm of neutrophils
DDoi's signHitoka DoineurologyEaton–Lambert syndromereappearance of absent deep tendon reflexes after short period of maximal muscle contraction
DDunphy signOsborne Joby Dunphysurgeryappendicitisincrease in abdominal pain on coughing
DDuroziez's signPaul Louis Duroziezcardiologyaortic insufficiencydouble bruit heard over femoral artery when it is compressed distally (see Traube's sign)
EElschnig spotsAnton Elschnigophthalmologyhypertensive retinopathy
EEpstein's pearlsAlois Epsteinpaediatricsnormal newborncystic papules on palate
EEwart's signWilliam Ewartcardiologypericardial effusionpercussive dullness, aegophony and bronchial breath sounds at L scapular tip
FFaget signJean-Charles Fagetinfectious diseaseYellow fever Typhoid Fever tularaemia brucellosis othersFaget's sign at Who Named It?the unusual constellation of fever and bradycardia
FFinkelstein's testHarry FinkelsteinrheumatologyDeQuervain's tenosynovitis
FForchheimer spotsFrederick Forchheimerpaediatricsrubellasmall red spots on the soft palate
FFothergill's signJohn Fothergillsurgeryrectus sheath hematomaanterior abdominal mass which does not cross the midline and is still palpable when abdominal wall muscles are tensed
FFox's signGeorge Henry Foxgastroenterologyhaemorrhagic pancreatitisecchymosis of inguinal ligament (blood tracks retroperitoneally)
FFrank's signSanders T. Frankcardiologyischaemic heart diseaseear crease indicating risk of heart disease (disputed)
FFriedreich's signNikolaus Friedreichcardiologyconstrictive pericarditis, tricuspid insufficiencycollapse of distended neck veins in diastole
FFroment's signJules Fromentneurologyulnar nerve palsypatient required to hold paper between thumb and palm (against attempt to withdraw);ability to do so is assessed
GGallavardin phenomenonLouis Gallavardincardiologyaortic stenosisdissociation of musical and noisy elements in ejection murmur
GGamna–Favre bodiesCarlos Gamna,
Maurice Favre
histologylymphogranuloma venereumGamna-Favre bodies at Who Named It?basophilic cytoplasmic inclusion bodies
GGandy–Gamna nodulesCharles Gandy,
Carlos Gamna
histologysplenomegaly due to portal hypertension and sickle cell diseaseGandy-Gamna bodies at Who Named It?small yellow-brown foci in the spleen
GGarrod's padsArchibald Garroddermatologyrepeated extreme tension of extensor tendon in interphalangeal jointthickening of skin and tissue over interphalangeal joint
GGerhardt's signCarl Jakob Adolf Christian GerhardtGerhardt's sign at Who Named It?'s+sign
controversial: see references
GGlasgow Coma ScaleGlasgowneurologyA neurological scale which aims to give a reliable and objective way of recording the conscious state of a person for initial as well as subsequent assessment.The sum of Eye, Motor and Verbal responses.
GGoetz signRobert H. GoetzPatent Ductus ArteriosusSeen during right ventriculography in the setting of a patent ductus arteriosus, the Goetz sign refers to the negative contrast effect seen in the pulmonary artery from non-contrast enhanced blood shunting left to right from the aorta
GGonda's signViktor Gonda, Ukrainian Neuropsychiatrist, (1889-1959)neurologypyramidal tract lesionsThe Babinski sign – a reappraisal Neurol India 48 (4): 314–8.flexing then suddenly releasing the 4th toe elicits an extensor plantar response
GGoodell's signWilliam Goodellobstetricspregnancysoftening of the vaginal part of the cervix during the first trimester
GGoodsall's ruleDavid Henry Goodsallgastroenterology, general surgeryanal fistulaanatomical relationships, differentiation of fistula types
GGordon's signAlfred Gordonneurologypyramidal tract lesionsThe Babinski sign – a reappraisal Neurol India 48 (4): 314–8.squeezing the calf muscle elicits an extensor plantar response
GGottron's papulesHeinrich Adolf GottronrheumatologydermatomyositisPathologic Basis of Disease (8th Ed), Robbins & CotranScaling, erythematous eruption or dusky red patches over the knuckles, elbows and knees
GGowers' sign[3]William Richard Gowersneurologymuscular dystrophy
GGraham Steell murmurGraham Steellcardiologymitral stenosispulmonary regurgitation murmur in patients with pulmonary hypertension secondary to mitral stenosis
GGrey Turner's signGeorge Grey Turnersurgeryretroperitoneal hemorrhageflank ecchymosis
GGriffith's signAlexander Hill Griffith, Scottish Ophthalmologist, Manchester (1858-1937)endocrinologyGraves' ophthalmopathy(needed)lid lag of the lower eyelid on upward eye movement
GGunn's signRobert Marcus GunnophthalmologyhypertensionGunn's sign at Who Named It?AV "nicking" or "nipping" in hypertensive retinopathy
HHamman's signLouis Hammanthoracic surgeryoesophageal perforation w/ pneumomediastinumcrepitus in sync w/ heartbeat but not respiration
HHampton's humpAubrey Otis Hamptonpulmonology, radiologypulmonary embolus with infarctHampton's hump at Who Named It?wedge shaped consolidation at periphery with base on the pleura
HHampton's lineAubrey Otis Hamptonradiology, gastroenterologypeptic ulcerHampton's line at Who Named It?line on barium meal indicating mucosal oedema associated with ulcer
HHannington-Kiff signJohn G. Hannington-Kiffgeneral surgeryobturator herniaabsent thigh adductor reflex with positive patellar reflex
HHarrison's grooveEdward Harrisoninternal medicinericketsHarrison's sulcus at Who Named It?rib deformity at the lower thorax
HHatchcock's sign?paediatrics, infectious diseasemumps(needed)tenderness behind angle of jaw (typically before swelling is evident)
HHeberden's nodeWilliam Heberdenrheumatologyosteoarthritissame as bouchard's nodes, but over dip joints
HHegar's signErnst Ludwig Alfred Hegarobstetricsnormal pregnancysoftening of cervical isthmus appearing between 4th and 6th weeks (usually)
HHess testAlfred Fabian Hessinternal medicinecapillary fragilityRumpel-Konchalevskii-Leede phenomenon or sign at Who Named It?appearance of petechiae after compression of arm by bandage or blood pressure cuff
HHildreth's signDH Hildrethdermatologyglomus tumorRelief of pain at tumor site upon vascular occlusion of limb, with acute return of pain on reperfusion
HHippocratic faceHippocratespalliative careimpending death
HHippocratic fingersHippocratespulmonary medicinechronic hypoxiaclubbing of distal phalanges
HHirschberg testJulius Hirschbergophthalmologystrabismuscorneal reflection centred (-) or not centred (+) on pupil
HHoffmann's signJohann Hoffmannneurologycorticospinal tract lesionstapping distal phalanx of 3rd or 4th finger elicits flexion of same in thumb
HHollenhorst plaqueRobert Hollenhorstophthalmologyhypertension, coronary artery disease, and/or diabetescholesterol embolus(i) of retinal artery(ies)
HHomans' signJohn Homansthrombosisdeep venous thrombosisknee bent, ankle abruptly dorsiflexed, popliteal pain
HHoover's sign (leg paresis)Charles Franklin Hooverneurology, psychiatrylower extremity paresisdifferentiates organic from non-organic etiology
HHoover's sign (pulmonary)Charles Franklin HooverpulmonologyCOPDinward movement of lower ribs during inspiration
HHowship–Romberg signJohn Howship,
Moritz Heinrich Romberg
surgeryobturator herniaHowship's syndrome at Who Named It?pain from an obturator hernia radiating to knee
HHubscher's ManeuverPodiatryFlexible vs rigid flatfoot deformityTemplate:Jack TestPatient bears weight on foot. Hallux is dorsiflexed. If arch is recreated, test is positive. Indicative of flexible deformity
HHutchinson's freckleSir Jonathan HutchinsondermatologymelanomaHutchinson's freckle at Who Named It?precancerous facial pigmentation
HHutchinson's pupilSir Jonathan Hutchinsonneurologyoculomotor nerve lesionHutchinson's pupil at Who Named It?dilated pupil on the side of an intracranial lesion due to IIIrd nerve compression
HHutchinson's signSir Jonathan Hutchinsonophthalmologyherpes zosterHutchinson's sign 2 at Who Named It?lesion on tip of the nose which can presage ocular herpes zoster
HHutchinson's teeth[4]Sir Jonathan Hutchinsonpediatricscongenital syphilissmall, widely spaced incisors with notched biting surfaces
HHutchinson's triadSir Jonathan Hutchinsonpediatricscongenital syphilisinterstitial keratitis, nerve deafness, Hutchinson's teeth
JJaneway lesionTheodore Caldwell Janewaycardiologyinfective endocarditispalmar or plantar erythematous or haemorrhagic papules
JJendrassik maneuverErnő Jendrassikneurologyhyporeflexiacompares patellar reflex w/ and w/o distraction
J Jobe's relocation test Christopher Jobe orthopedics
JJoffroy's signAlexis Joffroyendocrinologyexophthalmos in Graves diseaseJoffroy's sign I at Who Named It?lack of forehead wrinkling when patient looks up with head bowed
JJolly's testFriedrich Jollyneurologymyasthenia gravis or Eaton–Lambert syndromeelectromyography test using repeated stimuli to show fatiguability in myasthenia
JJones criteriaT. Duckett Jonesrheumatologyrheumatic fevercriteria used to diagnose rheumatic fever
KKanavel's signAllen B. Kanavelorthopedics, rheumatologytenosynovitis of flexor digitorum tendon finger held in slight flexion, (2) fusiform swelling, (3) tenderness along the flexor tendon sheath, and (4) pain with passive extension of the digit.
KKayser–Fleischer ringBernhard Kayser,
Bruno Fleischer
neurology, gastroenterologyWilson's disease(hepatolenticular degeneration)ring of brownish copper deposit at corneo-scleral junction
KKehr's signHans Kehrtrauma surgeryruptured spleenreferred pain to L shoulder
KKelly's signHoward Atwood Kellysurgeryvisible response of ureter when touched (means of identifying same)
KKerley linesPeter Kerleyradiologypulmonary edema
KKernig's signWoldemar Kernigneurologymeningism, meningitis, subarachnoid haemorrhagesynd/2200 at Who Named It?hip and knee fully flexed, extension of knee elicits pain and/or opisthotonus
KKocher's signEmil Theodor Kocherophthalmology, endocrinologyHyperthyroidism, Basedow's disease,In fixation on a fast upwards movement there occurs a convulsive retraction of the eyelid
KKoebner's phenomenonHeinrich Koebnerdermatologyvarious conditions
KKoeppe's nodulesLeonhard Koeppeophthalmologyuveitisgranulomatous nodules at pupillary margin
KKoplik's spotsHenry Koplikpediatricsmeasles
KKorotkoff soundsNikolai Korotkovcardiologyauscultatory sphygmomanometryKorotkov described 5 sounds. Only the first (the onset of audible sound, and corresponding to systolic pressure) and the fifth (sound becomes inaudible, corresponding to diastolic pressure) are of practical clinical significance (however, see:Auscultatory gap)
KKussmaul breathing[5]Adolph Kussmaulendocrinologymetabolic acidosislaboured deep breathing with normal or reduced frequency
KKussmaul's signAdolph Kussmaulcardiologyvarious, including right side failureincreased jugular distension on inspiration
KKveim testMorten Ansgar Kveimpulmonary medicinesarcoidosisintradermal injection of lymphatic extract from known sufferer; obsolete
LLachman maneuverJohn Lachmanorthopedic surgeryanterior cruciate ligament injurymodified anterior drawer test with knee in less flexion
LLadin's signLouis Julius Ladin, Lithuanian-American Gynecologist, (1862-1951)obstetricsnormal pregnancy(needed)softening of uterus; similar to Hegar's sign
LLancisi's signGiovanni Maria Lancisicardiologytricuspid regurgitationgiant v-wave in seen in jugular vein
LLarrey's signDominique Larreyrheumatologysacroiliitispain in sacroiliac area on sitting down on hard chair
LLasègue's signCharles Lasègueneurosurgery, orthpaedic surgerylumbar disc lesions, sciaticabetter known as straight leg raise test
LLeopold's maneuverChristian Gerhard LeopoldobstetricsLeopold's maneuver at Who Named It?determination of fetal lie
LLeser–Trélat signEdmund Leser,
Ulysse Trélat
oncologymalignant neoplasmLeser-Trélat sign at Who Named It?sudden onset of multiple pruritic seborrheic keratoses
LLevine's signSamuel A. Levinecardiologymyocardial infarctionpatient clenches fist over chest when asked to describe pain
LLhermitte's signJean Lhermitteneurologylesions of cervical cord dorsal columns or caudal medulla, MS, chemotherapy, Behçet's diseaseelectrical sensation down the back and into limbs with neck flexion or extension
LLiebermeister's ruleCarl von Liebermeisterinternal medicineLiebermeister's rule at Who Named It?For each fever degree Celsius an increase of 8 beats per minute in cardiac frequency
LLisch noduleKarl Lischophthalmologytype I neurofibromatosisyellow brown hamartomata on iris
LLisker's sign?internal medicinedeep venous thrombosis(needed)tenderness on percussion of antero-medial tibia
LLitten's signMoritz Littencardiologyinfective endocarditiseMedicinecotton-wool exudate in the retina
LLombard effectÉtienne Lombardpsychiatrymalingering due to simulated deafnessautomatic rise in the loudness of a person's voice when they speak in noise
LLouvel's sign?internal medicinedeep venous thrombosis(needed)increased pain along vein with valsalva; proximal pressure prevents this
LLowenberg's sign?vascular medicinedeep vein thrombosis(needed)immediate pain on inflating blood pressure cuff around calf
MMacDonald triadJohn M. MacDonaldpsychiatrysociopathic personality disordereneuresis, firesetting and animal torture predictive of future criminal behaviour
MMacewen's signSir William Macewenneurology, neurosurgeryhydrocephalus, brain abscessresonance on percussion of fronto-temporo-parietal suture
MMagnan's signValentin Magnanaddiction medicinecocaine dependenceMagnan's sign at Who Named It?feeling of moving foreign body under the skin
MMantoux testCharles Mantouxinfectious diseasetuberculosisintradermal protein derivative – diameter of wheal evaluated
MMarcus Gunn pupilRobert Marcus Gunnophthalmology, neurologysevere retinal disease, lesion of optic nerve anterior to chiasmGunn's pupillary phenomenon at Who Named It?Relative pupil dilatation when light swings to the affected side
MMarkle sign?surgeryappendicitis(needed)RLQ pain on dropping from standing on toes to heels
MMayne's sign?cardiologyaortic insufficiency(needed)diastolic blood pressure drop of >15mmHg on raising arm
MMcBurney's pointCharles McBurneysurgeryappendicitis2/3 of the way lateral on a line from umbilicus to anterior superior iliac spine (corresponds to junction of vermiform appendix and cecum)
MMcConnell's signM.V. McConnellcardiologypulmonary embolismechocardiography finding of akinesia of the mid-free wall of the right ventricle but normal motion of the apex
MMcMurray testThomas Porter McMurrayorthopaedicsmeniscal tearMcMurray's sign at Who Named It?knee extended, valgus stress applied, leg rotated produces palpable or audible click
MMeans–Lerman scratchJ. Lerman, J.H. Meansendocrinologyhyperthyroidismsystolic heart murmur similar to pericardial rub
MMees' linesR.A. Meestoxicologyarsenic or heavy metal poisoningtransverse white lines across the nails
MMellinghoff's signKarl Hermann Mellinghoff, German Endocrinologist, (1908-1967)hyperbaric medicinecutaneous decompression sicknesscoughing or Valsalve accentuates the venous markings of an erysipeloid rash
MMentzer indexWilliam C. Mentzer Jr.hematologymicrocytic anemiadifferentiates iron deficiency anaemia from beta thalassaemia
MMiller Fisher testC. Miller Fisherneurologynormal pressure hydrocephalusImprovement in cognitive function after withdrawal of CSF during lumbar puncture used to confirm diagnosis
MMoniz signAntónio Egas Monizneurologypyramidal tract lesionsThe Babinski sign – a reappraisal Neurol India 48 (4): 314–8.forceful plantar flexion of the ankle elicits an extensor plantar response
MMöbius signPaul Julius MöbiusendocrinologythyrotoxicosisMöbius sign at TheFreeDictionary.cominability to maintain convergence of eyes
MMuehrcke's linesRobert C. Muehrckenephrology, oncologyhypoalbuminaemia, chemotherapypaired transverse white lines on nail bed
MMulder's signJacob D. Mulderneurology, podiatryMorton's neuromatransverse compression of the forefoot elicits pain in the distribution of the affected nerve
MMüller's maneuverJohannes Peter Müllerpulmonologycollapsed section of airwaypatient attempts to breathe in with nose and mouth closed (opposite of Valsalva maneuver)
MMüller's signFriedrich von Müllercardiologyaortic insufficiencyMüller's sign at Who Named It?visible pulsation or bobbing of uvula
MMurphy's punch signJohn B. Murphyurologyperinephric abscessMurphy's punch at Who Named It?punch tenderness at the costovertebral angle
MMurphy's signJohn B. MurphysurgerycholecystitisMurphy's sign at Who Named It?hesitation on inspiration while gall bladder is palpated
MMyerson's signAbraham MyersonneurologyParkinson's diseaseinability to resist blinking when glabella is percussed
NNaegele's ruleFranz Karl Naegelegynecologygestationmethod of estimating due date
NNardi testGeorge Nardigastroenterologydysfunction of sphincter of Oddiadministration of morphine and neostigmine reproduces sharp LUQ pain; not in general use
NNikolsky's signPyotr Nikolskydermatologyvarious, including pemphigus vulgarisshearing of epidermis under pressure
OO'Brien's test?(needed)
OO'Donoghue's triadD. O'Donoghueorthopaedics, sports medicineknee injurycoincidence of anterior cruciate injury, medial collateral injury and meniscal tear
OOliver's signWilliam Silver Olivercardiologyaortic arch aneurysmcaudal movement of trachea with systole
OOppenheim's signHermann Oppenheimneurologypyramidal tract lesionsOppenheim's reflex at Who Named It?irritation downward of the medial tibia causes dorsiflexion of big toe
OOrtolani testMarino Ortolanipediatrics & orthopedicscongenital hip dislocationOrtolani's sign and test at Who Named It?palpable clunk on moving hip
OOsborn waveJohn Jay Osborn, American Cardiologist, (1917-2014)cardiology, emergency medicinehypothermiapositive deflection at QRS-ST junction
OOsler's nodeSir William Oslerinternal medicinevarious, including SBE and SLEpainful red lesions on the pads of the fingers and plantar surfaces
OOsler's signSir William Oslerinternal medicineatherosclerosisfalsely elevated bp reading due to incompressibility of calcified vessels
PPalla's sign?internal medicinepulmonary embolismPulmonary embolism at Merck Manual onlineenlarged right descending pulmonary artery on chest x-ray
PPastia's signConstantin Chessec Pastiapediatricsscarlet feverPastia's sign at Who Named It?lines of confluent petechiae in skin creases (associated with Scarlatiniform rash and strep pyogenes)
PPatrick's testHugh Talbot PatrickrheumatologysacroiliitisPatrick's test at Who Named It?external rotation of the hip causes pain
PPeabody's signC.N. Peabodyinternal medicinedeep vein thrombosiscalf muscle spasm when raising the affected leg with the foot extended
PPemberton's signHugh Pembertonthoracic surgeryretrosternal mass with superior vena cava syndromearms elevated over head elicits facial plethora, distended neck veins and inspiratory stridor
PPhalen's maneuverGeorge S. Phalenrheumatology, hand surgerycarpal tunnel syndrome30–60 seconds of full forced flexion of wrist elicits symptoms
PPiskaçek's signLudwig Piskaçekobstetricsnormal pregnancyPiskaçek's sign at Who Named It?palpable lateral bulge at tubal-uterine junction; present at 7–8 weeks
PPlummer's nailHenry Stanley PlummerendocrinologythyrotoxicosisPlummer's nail at Who Named It?onycholysis especially of ring and little fingers
PPratt's signGerald H. Prattinternal medicinedeep venous thrombosispain elicited by compression of posterior calf
QQueckenstedt's maneuverHans Heinrich Georg Queckenstedtneurologyspinal stenosisQueckenstedt's phenomenon at Who Named It?bilateral jugular vein pressure during lumbar puncture causes sudden rise in CSF pressure
QQuincke's signHeinrich Irenaeus Quinckecardiologyaortic insufficiencyQuincke's capillary pulse at Who Named It?visible pulsation in ungual capillary bed
RReynolds' pentadB.M. Reynoldsgastroenterologyascending cholangitisReynold's pentad at Who Named It?Charcot's triad + hypotension and altered mental state
RRiesman's signDavid Riesmanendocrinologythyrotoxicosisbruit over globe of the eye
RRigler's sign[6]Leo George Riglerradiology, abdominal surgerypneumoperitoneumRigler's sign at Who Named It?gas outlines both mucosal and serosal surfaces of bowel
RRinne testHeinrich Adolf RinneENT, neurology, audiometryhearing impairmentRinne's test at Who Named It?comparison of air conduction to bone conduction differentiates sensorineural from conductive deafness
RRomaña's signCecilio Romañatropical medicineChagas' diseaseRomaña's sign at Who Named It?painless unilateral periorbital swelling
RRomberg testMoritz Heinrich Rombergneurologydorsal column lesions, cerebllar lesions, alcohol intoxicationRomberg's sign at Who Named It?inability to maintain posture with eyes closed
RRose's sign?vascular medicinedeep vein thrombosis(needed)Warm, stiff feeling of skin when affected leg is pinched
RRosenbach's testOttomar Rosenbachclinical chemistrybilirubinuriaRosenbach's test at Who Named It?colour produced on addition of nitric acid
RRosenstein's signPaul Rosensteingeneral surgeryappendicitisAdvances in Pediatrics. JP Medical Ltd. p. 1432. ISBN 978-93-5025-777-7.tenderness in the right lower quadrant increases when the patient moves from the supine position to a recumbent posture on the left side
RRossolimo's signGrigory Ivanovich Rossolimoneurologypyramidal tract lesionsThe Babinski sign – a reappraisal Neurol India 48 (4): 314–8.percussion of the tips of the toes causes exaggerated flexion of the toes
RRoth's spotsMoritz Rothophthalmology, internal medicinevarious, including SBE and systemic vasculitidesRoth's spot at Who Named It?retinal haemorrhages with pale centres seen at fundoscopy
RRovsing's signNiels Thorkild Rovsinggeneral surgeryappendicitisRovsing's sign at Who Named It?palpation of LLQ elicits pain in RLQ
RRumpel–Leede signTheodor Rumpel,
Carl Stockbridge Leede
haematologycapillary fragilityRumpel-Leede test at Who Named It?petechiae seen after compression by tourniquet
RRussell's signGerald Russellpsychiatrybulimia nervosascarring of the dorsum of one hand (contact with incisors when purging)
SSalus's signRobert SalusophthalmologyhypertensionHypertension at Medscapedeflection of retinal veins at right angle junctions due to elongation or shortening of connected arterioles
SSchaeffer's signMax Schaefferneurologypyramidal tract lesionsSchäffer's reflex at Who Named It?squeezing the Achilles tendon elicits an extensor plantar response
SSchamroth's window testLeo Schamrothpulmonology, cardiologychronic hypoxiaidentifies clubbing of distal phalanges
SSchiller's testWalter Schillergynecologycervical cancerSchiller's test at Who Named It?affected areas of cervix fail to stain brown with iodine solution
SSchilling testRobert F. Schillinginternal medicinepernicious anaemia, coeliac disease, other malabsorption disordersB12 radioassay; rare
SSchirmer's testOtto Schirmerophthalmologykeratoconjunctivitis sicca, as in Sjögren's syndromequantifies lacrimal secretion
SSchober testPaul Schoberphysiatry, rheumatology, orthopaedicsvarious disorders of lumbar vertebraeSchober's sign at Who Named It?quantifies lumbar flexion
SSherren's triangleJames SherrensurgeryappendicitisSherren's triangle at Who Named It?area of hyperaesthesia over the right lower abdomen
SShone's complexJohn D. Shonecardiologycongenital heart defectsupravalvular mitral ring, parachute deformity of mitral valve, subaortic stenosis and coarctation of the aorta
SSiegrist streaksAugust Siegristophthalmologymalignant hypertensionhyperpigmented sreaks parallel to choroidal vessels
SSimmonds' testFranklin Adin SimmondsorthopaedicsAchilles tendon rupturesqueezing of calf fails to produce plantar flexion
SSims–Huhner testHarry M. Sims, Max Huhnerreproductive medicineinfertilitySims-Huhner test at Who Named It?determination of sperm count and motility in a sample taken from the cervical canal within an hour of intercourse
SSister Mary Joseph nodule[7]Sister Mary Joseph Dempsey (born Julia Dempsey)oncologyvarious abdominal malignanciespalpable lymph node in the umbilicus
SSpurling's testRoy Glenwood Spurlingneurologycervical radiculopathySpurling's manoeuvre and sign at Who Named It?axial compression and rotation of cervical spine to the side of symptoms causes pain
SStellwag's signKarl Stellwag von Carionendocrinologythyrotoxicosisinfrequent and/or incomplete blinking, accompanied by Dalrymple's sign
SStill's murmurSir George Frederick Stillpaediatric cardiologysubaortic stenosis, small Ventricular septal defectStill's mmurmur at Who Named It?systolic ejection sound ; vibratory/musical; best heard at left lower sternal border
SStransky's sign?neurologypyramidal tract lesionsThe Babinski sign – a reappraisal Neurol India 48 (4): 314–18.sudden abduction and release of little toe causes extensor plantar response
SStroop testJohn Ridley Stroopneuropsychologyvarious, including ADHD and schizophreniareaction times for incongruent stimuli (e.g., word red printed in blue)
SStrümpell's signAdolph Strümpellneurologyspastic pareses of the lower extremityStrümpell's sign I at Who Named It?failure of abrupt passive flexion of the hip and/or knee to elicit dorsiflexion and adduction of foot
TTerry's nailsR. Terryinternal medicinevarious including hepatic failurewhite 'ground glass' nails;absence of lunula
TTerry Thomas signTerry-ThomasOrthopaedicsScapho-lunate dissociationAtlas of Signs in Musculoskeletal RadiologyGap between the scaphoid and lunate bones on AP wrist radiograph
TThomas testHugh Owen ThomasOrthopaedicsFixed flexion deformity of hipSupine patient flexes one hip whilst keeping other leg flat; back arches if flexion deformity is present
TThrockmorton's reflexTom Bentley Throckmortonneurologypyramidal tract lesionsThe Babinski sign – a reappraisal Neurol India 48 (4): 314–8.pressure over dorsal big toe MTP joint elicits an extensor plantar response
TTinel's signJules Tinelneurologyneuritis, compression disorders'DTP' – distal tingling on percussion
TTodd's paresisRobert Bentley Toddneurologyseizure disordersfocal weakness for as much as 48 hours after seizure
TTraube's signLudwig Traubevarioussplenomegalydull percussion sound over Traube's space
TTrendelenburg's signFriedrich Trendelenburgneurologyinferior gluteal palsy, other causes of hip abductors weaknesspelvic tilt contralateral to 'stance leg'
TTroisier's signCharles Emile Troisierinternal medicine, oncologyVarious abdominal malignancies, especially stomach cancerTroisier's node or sign at Who Named It?Enlargement of the left supraclavicular lymph node (=Virchow's node)
TTrousseau's sign of malignancyArmand Trousseauinternal medicinevarious malignancies, including pancreaticspontaneous thrombosis of multiple veins, including portal circulation
TTrousseau's sign of latent tetanyArmand Trousseauinternal medicine, endocrinologyhypocalcaemiaTrendelenburg's phenomenon at Who Named It?in hypocalcaemia, occlusion of brachial artery induces carpal spasm
UUhthoff's phenomenonWilhelm Uhthoffneurologymultiple sclerosisUhthoff's symptom at Who Named It?↑ in neurological symptoms with exercise or other increase in body temperature
UUnterberger testSiegfried Unterbergerneurology, ENTvestibular lesionspatient walks in place with eyes closed;direction of rotation indicates vestibular lesion on that side
VVirchow's nodeRudolf Virchowinternal medicine, oncologyVarious abdominal malignancies, especially stomach cancerVirchow's node at Who Named It?Enlargement of the left supraclavicular lymph node (=Troisier's sign)
VVirchow's triadRudolf Virchowhematologyetiology of thrombosisHypercoagulability, Hemodynamic changes (stasis, turbulence) and Endothelial injury/dysfunction
VVon Braun-Fernwald's signKarl von Braun-Fernwaldobstetricspregnancysoftening of the uterine fundus at the site of implantation at 4–5 weeks gestation
VVon Graefe signAlbrecht von GraefeendocrinologyGraves' disease' lid lag'; immobility of upper lid on downward gaze
WWada testJuhn Atsushi Wadaneurologyepilepsy, anatomical lesions of cerebrumWada's test at Who Named It?short acting barbiturate injected in internal carotid; lateralizes language function
WWaddell's signsG. Waddellprimary care, psychiatrychronic painidentify non-organic sources of low back pain
WWaddell's triadJ.P. Waddellpaediatric traumachild pedestrian struck by motor vehicleHead trauma, thoracic and/or abdominal trauma, femoral fracture
WWatson's water hammer pulseThomas Watsoncardiologyaortic regurgitationJ. Suvarna Watson's water hammer pulse Journal of Postgraduate Medicine 2008-04-01bounding forceful pulse elicited with postural manoeuvres
WWellens' sign or warningHein Wellenscardiologysevere stenosis of LADcharacteristic ekg changes
WWestermark signNils Westermarkpulmonologypulmonary embolismArea of oligaemia on chest x-ray
WWhipple's triadAllen Whippleendocrinologyhypoglycemia1.symptoms associated with hypoglycaemia 2. measured low serum glucose 3. relief of symptoms with administration of glucose p.o. or iv
WWickham's striaeLouis Frédéric Wickhamdermatologylichen planuswhite or greyish lines on the lichen planus lesions
WWidal testGeorges-Fernand Widalmicrobiologyenteric feverserum agglutination; obsolete(?)
WWinterbottom's signThomas Masterman Winterbottomtropical medicinetrypanosomiasisposterior cervical chain adenopathy
WWolff–Parkinson–White triadSir John Parkinson,
Paul Dudley White,
Louis Wolff
cardiologysupraventricular tachycardiaWolff-Parkinson-White syndrome at Who Named It?pre-excitation on ECG
WWright's maneuver?(needed)
YYeoman's test?rheumatologysacroiliitis(needed)sacroiliac pain on rotation of ilium and extension of hip
YYergason's test?orthopedic surgerybicipital tendinitisanterior shoulder pain with resisted supination of the forearm

Numerous additional signs can be found for Graves disease under Graves' ophthalmopathy.

See also


  1. if the palmar arch is not present, radial artery stick for blood gases is contraindicated
  2. Goldman, Lee. Goldman's Cecil Medicine (24th ed.). Philadelphia: Elsevier Saunders. p. 2446. ISBN 1437727883.
  3. also called Gowers' manoeuvre
  4. also called Hutchinson's incisors
  5. or Kussmaul respiration
  6. also called the double wall sign
  7. also Sister Mary Joseph sign
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