|Synonyms||inspection, palpation, percussion, and auscultation|
Although the steps are consistent across organ systems, the order may vary. Notably, for the abdominal exam, auscultation is performed before palpation, because the act of palpation could change what was auscultated.
- Kirby RL (March 1981). "Inspection-palpation-percussion-auscultation and an outcome-oriented alternative approach to the musculoskeletal examination". Med Educ. 15 (2): 106–9. PMID 7207269.
- Mark Kauffman; Michele M. Roth-Kauffman (6 July 2006). History and physical examination workbook: a common sense approach. Jones & Bartlett Learning. pp. 94–. ISBN 978-0-7637-4340-6. Retrieved 6 March 2011.