The human head drawn by Leonardo da Vinci
The human head consists of a fleshy outer portion, which surrounds the bony skull. The brain is enclosed within the skull. The head rests on the neck, and the seven cervical vertebrae support it. The human head typically weighs between 5 and 11 pounds (2.3 and 5.0 kg)
The face is the anterior part of the head, containing the eyes, nose, and mouth. On either side of the mouth, the cheeks provide a fleshy border to the oral cavity. The ears sit to either side of the head.
The head receives blood supply through the internal and external carotid arteries. These supply the area outside of the skull (external carotid artery) and inside of the skull (internal carotid artery). The area inside the skull also receives blood supply from the vertebral arteries, which travel up through the cervical vertebrae.
The twelve pairs of cranial nerves provide the majority of nervous control to the head. The sensation to the face is provided by the branches of the trigeminal nerve, the fifth cranial nerve. Sensation to other portions of the head is provided by the cervical nerves.
Modern texts are in agreement about which areas of the skin are served by which nerves, but there are minor variations in some of the details. The borders designated by diagrams in the 1918 edition of Gray's Anatomy are similar but not identical to those generally accepted today.
The cutaneous innervation of the head is as follows:
The head contains sensory organs: two eyes, two ears, a nose and tongue inside of the mouth. It also houses the brain. Together, these organs function as a processing center for the body by relaying sensory information to the brain. Humans can process information faster by having this central nerve cluster.
Society and culture
For humans, the front of the head (the face) is the main distinguishing feature between different people due to its easily discernible features, such as eye and hair colors, shapes of the sensory organs, and the wrinkles. Humans easily differentiate between faces because of the brain's predisposition toward facial recognition. When observing a relatively unfamiliar species, all faces seem nearly identical. Human infants are biologically programmed to recognize subtle differences in anthropomorphic facial features.
People who have greater than average intelligence are sometimes depicted in cartoons as having bigger heads as a way of notionally indicating that they have a "larger brain". Additionally, in science fiction, an extraterrestrial having a big head is often symbolic of high intelligence. Despite this depiction, advances in neurobiology have shown that the functional diversity of the brain means that a difference in overall brain size is only slightly to moderately correlated to differences in overall intelligence between two humans.
The head is a source for many metaphors and metonymies in human language, including referring to things typically near the human head ( "the head of the bed"), things physically similar to the way a head is arranged spatially to a body ("the head of the table"), metaphorically ("the head of the class"), and things that represent some characteristics associated with the head, such as intelligence ("there are a lot of good heads in this company").
Headpieces can signify status, origin, religious/spiritual beliefs, social grouping, team affiliation, occupation, or fashion choices.
In many cultures, covering the head is seen as a sign of respect. Often, some or all of the head must be covered and veiled when entering holy places or places of prayer. For many centuries, women in Europe, the Middle East, and South Asia have covered their hair as a sign of modesty. This trend has changed drastically in Europe in the 20th century, although is still observed in other parts of the world. In addition, a number of religions require men to wear specific head clothing—such as the Islamic Taqiyah (cap), Jewish yarmulke, or the Sikh turban. The same goes for women with the Muslim hijab or Christian nun's habit.
A hat is a head covering that can serve a variety of purposes. Hats may be worn as part of a uniform or used as a protective device, such as a hard hat, a covering for warmth, or a fashion accessory. Hats can also be indicative of social status in some areas of the world.
While numerous charts detailing head sizes in infants and children exist, most do not measure average head circumference past the age of 21. Reference charts for adult head circumference also generally feature homogeneous samples and fail to take height and weight into account.
One study in the United States estimated the average human head circumference to be 57 centimetres (22 1⁄2 in) in males and 55 centimetres (21 3⁄4 in) in females. A British study by Newcastle University showed an average size of 57.2 cm for males and 55.2 cm for females with average size varying proportionally with height
Macrocephaly can be an indicator of increased risk for some types of cancer in individuals who carry the genetic mutation that causes Cowden syndrome. For adults, this refers to head sizes greater than 58 centimeters in men or greater than 57 centimeters in women.
Average head sizes
|Head breadth||1||The maximum breadth of the head, usually above and behind the ears.||Men||13.9||14.3||15.2||16.1||16.5|
|Interpupilliary breadth||2||The distance between the centres of the pupils of the eyes, while looking straight ahead.||Men||5.7||5.9||6.5||7.1||7.4|
|Face breadth (bzygomatic)||3||The breadth of the face, measured across the most lateral projections of the cheek bones (zygomatic arches).||Men||12.8||13.2||12.2||13.3||13.7|
|Face length (menton-sellion)||4||The vertical distance from the tip of the chin (menton) to the deepest point of the nasal root depression between the eyes (sellion).||Men||10.8||11.2||12.2||13.3||13.7|
|Biocular breadth||5||The distance from the outer corners of the eyes (right and left ectocanthi).||Men||11.0||11.3||12.2||13.1||13.6|
|Bitragion breadth||6||The breadth of the head from the right tragion to the left. Tragion is the cartilaginous notch at the front of the ear.||Men||13.1||13.5||14.5||15.5||15.9|
back of head
|7||The horizontal distance from the most anterior point of the forehead between the brow-ridges (glabella) to the back of the head.||Men||18.3||18.8||20.0||21.1||21.7|
back of head
|8||The horizontal distance from the tip of the chin (menton) to the back of the head.||Men||15.7||16.5||18.2||20.0||20.7|
top of head
|9||The vertical distance from the nasal root depression between the eyes (sellion) to the level of the top of the head.||Men||9.7||10.1||11.2||12.4||12.9|
|Stomion to top of head||10||The vertical distance from the midpoint of the lips (stomion) to the level of the top of the head, measured with a headboard.||Men||16.9||17.4||18.6||19.9||20.6|
|Sellion to back of head||11||The horizontal distance from the nasal root depression between the eyes (sellion), to the back of the head, measured with a headboard.||Men||18.0||18.5||19.7||20.9||21.4|
back of head
|12||The horizontal distance from the tip of the nose (pronasale) to the back of the head.||Men||20.0||20.5||22.0||23.2||23.9|
|Head length||13||The maximum length of the head; measured from the most anterior point of the forehead between the brow ridges (glabella) to the back of the head (occiput).||Men||18.0||18.5||19.7||20.9||21.3|
top of head
|14||The vertical distance from the bottom of the chin (menton) to the top of the head.||Men||21.2||21.8||23.2||24.7||25.5|
|Mention-crinion length||15||The vertical distance from the bottom of the chin (menton) to the midpoint of the hairline (crinion).||Men||16.6||17.4||19.1||20.9||21.6|
|Menton-subnasale length||16||The distance from the bottom of the chin (menton) to the base of the nasal septum (subnasale).||Men||6.1||6.5||7.3||8.3||8.7|
- "Infants process faces long before they recognize other objects, Stanford vision researchers find". Stanford University. Retrieved 2018-11-14.
- Brain Size and Intelligence
- Lakoff and Johnson 1980, 1999
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- Christine Quigley (13 October 2005). The Corpse: A History. McFarland. pp. 249–251. ISBN 978-0-7864-2449-8.
- Nguyen, A.K.D (2012). "Head Circumference in Canadian Male Adults: Development of a Normalized Chart". International Journal of Morphology. 30 (4): 1474–1480. doi:10.4067/s0717-95022012000400033.
- TECHNICAL BRIEF - Relationship Between Head Mass and Circumference in Human Adults. Date: July 20, 2007. Principal Investigator: Randal P. Ching, Ph.D. Institution: University of Washington. Applied Biomechanics Laboratory.
- Bushby KM, Cole T, Matthews JN, Goodship JA (October 1992). "Centiles for adult head circumference". Archives of Disease in Childhood. 67 (10): 1286–7. doi:10.1136/adc.67.10.1286. PMC 1793909. PMID 1444530.
- Cowden Syndrome Detection Will Allow For Early Discovery of Cancerous Polyps. Date: December 7, 2010. Principal Investigator: Charis Eng, MD, PhD. Institution: Cleveland Clinic Genomic Medicine.
- Mester JL, Tilot AK, Rybicki LA, Frazier TW, Eng C (July 2011). "Analysis of prevalence and degree of macrocephaly in patients with germline PTEN mutations and of brain weight in Pten knock-in murine model". European Journal of Human Genetics. 19 (7): 763–8. doi:10.1038/ejhg.2011.20. PMC 3137495. PMID 21343951.
8. Human head
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Human heads.|
- Campbell, Bernard Grant. Human Evolution: An Introduction to Man's Adaptations, 4th edition (ISBN 0-202-02042-8).