Angle of the mandible

The angle of the mandible (gonial angle) is located at the posterior border at the junction of the lower border of the ramus of the mandible.

Angle of the mandible
Human skull. Position of angle of the mandible shown in red.
1870s American male skull. The angle of the mandible is visible just above the white number.
LatinAngulus mandibulae
Anatomical terminology

The angle of the mandible, which may be either inverted or everted, is marked by rough, oblique ridges on each side, for the attachment of the masseter laterally, and the pterygoideus internus (medial pterygoid muscle) medially; the stylomandibular ligament is attached to the angle between these muscles.

The forensic term for the midpoint of the mandibular angle is the gonion. The gonion is a cephalometric landmark located at the lowest, posterior, and lateral point on the angle.[1] This site is at the apex of the maximum curvature of the mandible, where the ascending ramus becomes the body of the mandible.

The mandibular angle has been named as a forensic tool for gender determination, but recent studies have called into question whether there is any significant sex difference in humans in the angle.[2][3]

See also

Additional images


This article incorporates text in the public domain from page 174 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy (1918)

  1. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2015-08-21. Retrieved 2015-07-10.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  2. Upadhyay, RB; et al. (January 2012). "Analysis of gonial angle in relation to age, gender, and dentition status by radiological and anthropometric methods". J Forensic Dent Sci. 4: 29–33. doi:10.4103/0975-1475.99160. PMC 3470415. PMID 23087579.
  3. Gungor, Kahraman; et al. (2007). "Evaluation of the Gonial Angle in the Anatolian Populations: From Past to Present" (PDF).

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