Dysplasia (from Ancient Greek δυσ- dys-, "bad" or "difficult" and πλάσις plasis, "formation") is an abnormal growth or development of cells (microscopic scale) and/or organs (macroscopic scale), and/or the abnormal histology or anatomical structure presumably resulting from such growth.[1] Dysplasias on mainly microscopic scale include epithelial dysplasia and fibrous dysplasia of bone. Dysplasias on mainly macroscopic scale include hip dysplasia, myelodysplastic syndrome and multicystic dysplastic kidney.

Normal squamous cells
Dysplastic cells

Mainly microscopic scale

Epithelial dysplasia

Epithelial dysplasia consists of an expansion of immature cells (such as cells of the ectoderm), with a corresponding decrease in the number and location of mature cells. Dysplasia is often indicative of an early neoplastic process. The term dysplasia is typically used when the cellular abnormality is restricted to the originating tissue, as in the case of an early, in-situ neoplasm.

Dysplasia, in which cell maturation and differentiation are delayed, can be contrasted with metaplasia, in which cells of one mature, differentiated type are replaced by cells of another mature, differentiated type.

Myelodysplastic syndrome

Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are a group of cancers in which immature blood cells in the bone marrow do not mature and therefore do not become healthy blood cells.[2] Problems with blood cell formation result in some combination of low red blood cells, low platelets, and low white blood cells.[2] Some types have an increase in immature blood cells, called blasts, in the bone marrow or blood.[2]

Fibrous dysplasia of bone

Fibrous dysplasia of bone is a disorder where normal bone and marrow is replaced with fibrous tissue, resulting in formation of bone that is weak and prone to expansion. As a result, most complications result from fracture, deformity, functional impairment and pain.[3]

Mainly macroscopic scale

Hip dysplasia

Hip dysplasia is an abnormality of the hip joint where the socket portion does not fully cover the ball portion, resulting in an increased risk for joint dislocation.[4] Hip dysplasia may occur at birth or develop in early life.[4] Regardless, it does not typically produce symptoms in babies less than a year old.[5] Occasionally one leg may be shorter than the other.[4] The left hip is more often affected than the right.[5] Complications without treatment can include arthritis, limping, and low back pain.[5]

Multicystic dysplastic kidney

Multicystic dysplastic kidney (MCDK) is a condition that results from the malformation of the kidney during fetal development. The kidney consists of irregular cysts of varying sizes. Multicystic dysplastic kidney is a common type of renal cystic disease, and it is a cause of an abdominal mass in infants.[6]

See also


  1. "Definition of dysplasia". Merriam-Webster dictionary. Retrieved 2019-09-09.
  2. "Myelodysplastic Syndromes Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version". NCI. 12 August 2015. Archived from the original on 5 October 2016. Retrieved 27 October 2016.
  3. Boyce, Alison M.; Collins, Michael T. (1993-01-01). Pagon, Roberta A.; Adam, Margaret P.; Ardinger, Holly H.; Wallace, Stephanie E.; Amemiya, Anne; Bean, Lora JH; Bird, Thomas D.; Fong, Chin-To; Mefford, Heather C. (eds.). Fibrous Dysplasia/McCune-Albright Syndrome. Seattle (WA): University of Washington, Seattle. PMID 25719192.
  4. "Your Orthopaedic Connection: Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip". October 2013.
  5. Shaw, BA; Segal, LS; SECTION ON, ORTHOPAEDICS. (December 2016). "Evaluation and Referral for Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip in Infants". Pediatrics. 138 (6): e20163107. doi:10.1542/peds.2016-3107. PMID 27940740.
  6. Multicystic Dysplastic Kidney Imaging at eMedicine

Further reading

  • Noel Weidner (editor), Richard Cote, Saul Suster, Lawrence Weiss (2003). Modern Surgical Pathology. London: W.B. Saunders. ISBN 978-0-7216-7253-3. OCLC 50244347.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  • Ramzi S. Cotran, Vinay Kumar, Tucker Collins (Editor) (1999). Robbins Pathologic Basis of Disease (6th ed.). London: W.B. Saunders. ISBN 978-0-7216-7335-6. OCLC 39465455.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
This article is issued from Wikipedia. The text is licensed under Creative Commons - Attribution - Sharealike. Additional terms may apply for the media files.