Craniofacial abnormality

Craniofacial abnormalities are congenital musculoskeletal disorders which primarily affect the cranium and facial bones.[1]

Craniofacial abnormality
Human skull
SpecialtyMedical genetics 

They are associated with the development of the pharyngeal arches.[2] Approximately, 5% of the UK or USA population present with dentofacial deformities requiring Orthognathic surgery, jaw surgery, and Orthodontics, brace therapy, as a part of their definitive treatment.[3][4][5]



  1. "WHO – Craniofacial abnormalities".
  2. "Craniofacial Abnormalities: Congenital Craniofacial and Musculoskeletal Abnormalities: Merck Manual Professional".
  3. Posnick, Jeffrey C. (September 2013). Orthognatic Surgery: Principles and Practice. Amsterdam: Elsevier. pp. 61–68. doi:10.1016/B978-1-4557-2698-1.00003-4. ISBN 978-145572698-1.
  4. Harrington C, Gallagher JR, Borzabadi-Farahani A (2015). "A retrospective analysis of dentofacial deformities and orthognathic surgeries using the index of orthognathic functional treatment needs (IOFTN)". Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 79 (7): 1063–6. doi:10.1016/j.ijporl.2015.04.027. PMID 25957779.
  5. Borzabadi-Farahani A, Eslamipour F, Shahmoradi M (2016). "Functional needs of subjects with dentofacial deformities: A study using the index of orthognathic functional treatment need (IOFTN)". J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg. 69 (6): 796–801. doi:10.1016/j.bjps.2016.03.008. PMID 27068664.

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