Cognitive deficit

Cognitive deficit is an inclusive term to describe any characteristic that acts as a barrier to the cognition process.[1]

Cognitive deficit
Other namesCognitive impairment

The term may describe

It usually refers to a durable characteristic, as opposed to altered level of consciousness, which may be acute and reversible. Cognitive deficits may be inborn or caused by environmental factors such as brain injuries, neurological disorders, or mental illness.[4][5]


Older people with cognitive impairment appear to improve somewhat with light therapy.[6]

Other findings

Although one would expect cognitive decline to have major effects on job performance, it seems that there is little to no correlation of health with job performance. With the exception of cognitive-dependent jobs such as air-traffic controller, professional athlete, or other elite jobs, age does not seem to impact one’s job performance. This obviously conflicts with cognitive tests given, so the matter has been researched further. One possible reason for this conclusion is the rare need for a person to perform at their maximum. There is a difference between typical functioning, that is – the normal level of functioning for daily life, and maximal functioning, that is – what cognitive tests observe as our maximum level of functioning. As the maximum cognitive ability that we are able to achieve decreases, it may not actually affect our daily lives, which only require the normal level.[7]

Some studies have indicated that childhood hunger might have a protective effect on cognitive decline. One possible explanation is that the onset of age-related changes in the body can be delayed by calorie restriction. Another possible explanation is the selective survival effect, as the study participants who had a childhood with hunger tend to be the healthiest of their era.[8]

See also

  • PASS Theory of Intelligence
  • Fluid and crystallized intelligence


  1. Coren, Stanley; Lawrence M. Ward; James T. Enns (1999). Sensation and Perception. Harcourt Brace. p. 9. ISBN 0-470-00226-3.
  2. Belanoff, Joseph K.; Gross, Kristin; Yager, Alison; Schatzberg, Alan F. (2001). "Corticosteroids and cognition". J Psychiatr Res. 35 (3): 127–45. doi:10.1016/s0022-3956(01)00018-8. PMID 11461709.
  3. Kalachnik, JE.; Hanzel, TE.; Sevenich, R.; Harder, SR. (Sep 2002). "Benzodiazepine behavioral side effects: review and implications for individuals with mental retardation". Am J Ment Retard. 107 (5): 376–410. doi:10.1352/0895-8017(2002)107<0376:BBSERA>2.0.CO;2. ISSN 0895-8017. PMID 12186578.
  4. Hockenbury, Don and Sandy (2004). Discovering Psychology. Worth Publishers. ISBN 0-7167-5704-4.
  5. Fried, Yehuda; Joseph Agassi (1976). Paranoia: A Study in Diagnosis. Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science, 50. ISBN 90-277-0704-9.
  6. Chiu, HL; Chan, PT; Chu, H; Hsiao, SS; Liu, D; Lin, CH; Chou, KR (October 2017). "Effectiveness of Light Therapy in Cognitively Impaired Persons: A Metaanalysis of Randomized Controlled Trials". Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 65 (10): 2227–2234. doi:10.1111/jgs.14990. PMID 28734045.
  7. Salthouse, Timothy (10 January 2012). "Consequences of Age-Related Cognitive Declines". Annual Review of Psychology. 63 (1): 201–226. doi:10.1146/annurev-psych-120710-100328. PMC 3632788. PMID 21740223.
  8. Barnes, L. L.; Wilson, R. S.; Everson-Rose, S. A.; Hayward, M. D.; Evans, D. A.; Mendes de Leon, C. F. (26 October 2015). "Effects of early-life adversity on cognitive decline in older African Americans and whites". Neurology. 79 (24): 2321–7. doi:10.1212/WNL.0b013e318278b607. PMC 3578376. PMID 23233682.

Further reading

  • Das, J.P.; Naglieri, J.A.; Kirby, J.R. (1994). Assessment of Cognitive Processes. Needham Heights, MA, USA: Allyn & Bacon. ISBN 0-205-14164-1.
  • Das, J.P. (2002). A better look at intelligence. Current Directions in Psychology, 11, 28–32.
  • Goldstein, Gerald; Beers, Susan, eds (2004). Comprehensive Handbook of Psychological Assessment: Volume I: Intellectual and Neurological Assessment. Hoboken (NJ): John Wiley & Sons.
  • Kaufman, Alan S. (2000). "Chapter 20: Tests of Intelligence". In Sternberg, Robert J. (ed.). Handbook of Intelligence. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 445–476. ISBN 978-0-521-59648-0. Lay summary (22 July 2013).
  • Naglieri, Jack A.; Otero, Tulio M. (2012). "Chapter 15: The Cognitive Assessment System: From Theory to Practice". In Flanagan, Dawn P.; Harrison, Patti L. (eds.). Contemporary Intellectual Assessment: Theories, tests, and issues (Third ed.). New York (NY): Guilford Press. pp. 376–399. ISBN 978-1-60918-995-2. Lay summary (29 March 2014).
  • Sattler, Jerome M. (2008). Assessment ofChildren: Cognitive Foundations. La Mesa (CA): Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher.
  • Urbina, Susana (2004). Essentials of Psychological Testing. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-0-471-41978-5. Lay summary (10 October 2013).
  • Urbina, Susana (2011). "Chapter 2: Tests of Intelligence". In Sternberg, Robert J.; Kaufman, Scott Barry (eds.). The Cambridge Handbook of Intelligence. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 20–38. ISBN 978-0-521-73911-5. Lay summary (9 February 2012).
External resources
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